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Table 2 Hours of ST device use per day among school students in Kuwait and associated factors (n = 3015, row %)

From: The detrimental impacts of smart technology device overuse among school students in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey

Variable < 2 h 2–4 h > 4 h P-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Gender
 Male 192 (13.9) 363 (26.2) 829 (59.9) 0.107
 Female 261 (16.2) 383 (23.8) 964 (60.0)  
School
 Primary 255 (25.4) 246 (24.5) 504 (50.1) < 0.001
 Secondary 119 (12.2) 232 (23.8) 623 (64.0)  
 High school 79 (7.8) 268 (26.5) 666 (65.7)  
Educational region
 Asimah 61 (12.7) 130 (27.1) 288 (60.1) 0.024
 Hawally 74 (14.2) 146 (28.0) 301 (57.8)  
 Mubarak Al-Kabeer 68 (13.1) 133 (25.6) 319 (61.3)  
 Farwaniyah 79 (16.7) 114 (24.2) 279 (59.1)  
 Jahra 78 (14.8) 110 (20.9) 338 (64.3)  
 Ahmadi 93 (19.6) 113 (23.8) 268 (56.5)  
Nationality
 Kuwaiti 349 (13.6) 604 (23.5) 1612 62.8) < 0.001
 Non-Kuwaiti Arab 104 (24.4) 142 (33.3) 181 (42.4)  
Last semester GPA
 A 238 (20.8) 324 (28.3) 581 (50.8) < 0.001
 B 111 (11.9) 209 (22.5) 609 (65.6)  
 C 63 (10.5) 155 (25.9) 381 (63.6)  
 D 27 (13.3) 35 (17.2) 141 (69.5)  
 F 9 (12.9) 17 (24.3) 44 (62.9)  
Father’s education
 Secondary school or lower 31 (13.4) 54 (23.4) 146 (63.2) 0.004
 High school 72 (12.4) 121 (20.8) 388 (66.8)  
 Diploma 48 (13.2) 91 (25.1) 224 (61.7)  
 Bachelor 192 (16.7) 314 (27.3) 645 (56.0)  
 Postgraduate 40 (11.9) 89 (26.6) 206 (61.5)  
Mother’s education
 Secondary school or lower 35 (15.6) 54 (24.1) 135 (60.3) 0.001
 High school 65 (12.5) 118 (22.7) 336 (64.7)  
 Diploma 42 (9.7) 106 (24.4) 287 (66.0)  
 Bachelor 224 (16.9) 358 (27.0) 746 (56.2)  
 Postgraduate 29 (15.4) 40 (21.3) 119 (63.3)  
Family income (KD per month)
 Less than 500 13 (36.1) 9 (25.0) 14 (38.8) 0.005
 500–1000 51 (19.7) 67 (25.9) 141 (54.4)  
 1000-2000 42 (14.2) 85 (28.7) 169 (57.1)  
 More than 2000 34 (11.7) 88 (30.2) 169 (58.1)  
Weight [M (IQR)] a 49 kg (26) 55 kg (24) 55 kg (24) < 0.001
Sports on a regular basis
 Yes 226 (17.3) 365 (27.9) 718 (54.9) < 0.001
 No 222 (13.4) 376 (22.6) 1063 (64.0)  
Seizures
 Yes 6 (12.8) 8 (17.0) 33 (70.2) 0.33
 No 447 (15.2) 738 (25.1) 1760 (59.8)  
Transient vision loss
 Yes 15 (11.9) 22 (17.5) 89 (70.6) 0.041
 No 438 (15.3) 724 (25.3) 1704 (59.5)  
Eye flashes
 Yes 43 (10.8) 80 (20.1) 275 (69.1) < 0.001
 No 410 (15.8) 666 (25.7) 1518 (58.5)  
Eye dryness
 Yes 72 (13.4) 119 (22.1) 348 (64.6) 0.053
 No 381 (15.5) 627 (25.6) 1445 (58.9)  
Blurred vision
 Yes 87 (14.0) 114 (18.4) 419 (67.6) < 0.001
 No 366 (15.4) 632 (26.6) 1374 (57.9)  
Near-sightedness
 Yes 38 (12.1) 69 (22.0) 207 (65.9) 0.065
 No 415 (15.5) 677 (25.3) 1586 (59.2)  
Eye squints
 Yes 9 (13.4) 17 (25.4) 41 (61.2) 0.925
 No 444 (15.2) 729 (24.9) 1752 (59.9)  
Headaches
 Yes 124 (11.8) 251 (23.9) 677 (64.4) < 0.001
 No 329 (17.0) 495 (25.5) 1116 (57.5)  
Sleep disturbances
 Yes 137 (12.5) 214 (19.5) 748 (68.1) < 0.001
 No 316 (16.7) 532 (28.1) 1045 (55.2)  
Neck/shoulder pain
 Yes 138 (12.2) 271 (23.9) 724 (63.9) < 0.001
 No 315 (16.9) 475 (25.6) 1069 (57.5)  
Lower-back pain
 Yes 48 (8.6) 113 (20.2) 398 (71.2) < 0.001
No 405 (16.6) 633 (26.0) 1395 (57.3)  
Loss of concentration
Yes 75 (10.3) 155 (21.3) 499 (68.4) < 0.001
No 378 (16.7) 591 (26.1) 1294 (57.2)  
Obesity
Yes 38 (9.3) 96 (23.5) 275 (67.2) < 0.001
No 415 (16.1) 650 (25.2) 1518 (58.8)  
  1. a Mann–Whitney U test
  2. M Median, IQR Interquartile range