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Table 8 Results of multivariate regression analysis predicting scores related with the level of early childhood development

From: Reliability and validity of the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments (CREDI) in impoverished regions of China

Variables Bayley Cog CREDI
Cog
ASQ-3
SP
Bayley
RC
Bayley
EC
CREDI Lang ASQ-3
Com
Bayley
GM
Bayley
FM
CREDI Mot ASQ-3
GM
ASQ-3
FM
CREDI
SE
ASQ-3
PS
Home stimulation 0.116*(0.054) 0.375*** (0.040) 0.430*** (0.083) 0.305*** (0.074) 0.296*** (0.061) 0.298*** (0.039) 0.389*** (0.059) 0.067 (0.049) 0.068 (0.060) 0.229*** (0.045) 0.242*** (0.055) 0.527*** (0.082) 0.277*** (0.032) 0.326*** (0.068)
Age group (Reference: [5]-11months)
 12–17 months 1.005*** (0.103) 1.155*** (0.062) −0.165 (0.130) 0.717*** (0.069) 0.808*** (0.087) 0.824*** (0.051) −0.312*** (0.087) 1.524*** (0.098) 1.005*** (0.124) 1.122*** (0.050) 0.865*** (0.110) −0.293** (0.100) 1.188*** (0.056) 0.028 (0.108)
 18–23 months 1.571*** (0.098) 1.701*** (0.057) −0.146 (0.112) 1.394*** (0.116) 1.418*** (0.088) 1.500*** (0.045) −0.089 (0.109) 1.957*** (0.069) 1.470*** (0.117) 1.759*** (0.047) 1.203*** (0.092) −0.231* (0.097) 1.806*** (0.047) 0.055 (0.108)
 24–29 months 2.293*** (0.107) 2.026*** (0.056) −0.368*** (0.105) 1.949*** (0.111) 2.152*** (0.088) 2.098*** (0.040) 0.468*** (0.085) 2.406*** (0.065) 2.202*** (0.120) 2.163*** (0.045) 1.073*** (0.075) −0.467*** (0.096) 2.179*** (0.046) −0.215* (0.101)
 30–35 months 2.737*** (0.136) 2.233*** (0.070) −0.350** (0.125) 2.316*** (0.188) 2.349*** (0.151) 2.381*** (0.046) 0.521*** (0.101) 2.582*** (0.121) 2.665*** (0.172) 2.491*** (0.057) 1.154*** (0.094) −0.673*** (0.145) 2.391*** (0.068) −0.058 (0.121)
Gender (Reference: Female)
 Male −0.051 (0.050) −0.133*** (0.032) − 0.053 (0.065) −0.214** (0.064) − 0.192** (0.071) −0.134*** (0.026) − 0.209** (0.069) −0.021 (0.053) − 0.099 (0.074) −0.097*** (0.027) 0.025 (0.053) −0.076 (0.063) − 0.095** (0.029) −0.299*** (0.059)
With sibling or not (Reference: no sibling)
 With sibling −0.037 (0.058) −0.030 (0.038) − 0.085 (0.057) −0.011 (0.052) − 0.025 (0.079) −0.033 (0.030) − 0.021 (0.053) −0.017 (0.049) − 0.044 (0.060) −0.036 (0.033) − 0.015 (0.060) −0.019 (0.068) 0.001 (0.036) −0.069 (0.055)
Whether premature or not (Reference: No)
 Yes −0.188+ (0.099) −0.021 (0.083) 0.064 (0.197) −0.130 (0.186) 0.045 (0.111) −0.032 (0.078) − 0.041 (0.176) − 0.055 (0.123) − 0.283* (0.129) − 0.077 (0.072) 0.160 (0.112) 0.033 (0.126) − 0.038 (0.071) 0.110 (0.188)
Whether mother is the primary caregiver (Reference: No)
 Yes 0.005 (0.062) −0.039 (0.038) 0.162* (0.075) −0.098 (0.100) −0.118 (0.088) − 0.024 (0.035) 0.040 (0.073) − 0.038 (0.052) −0.095 (0.065) − 0.002 (0.029) −0.022 (0.064) 0.075 (0.064) −0.061+ (0.034) 0.029 (0.081)
Whether the mother’s education level is high school and above (Reference: No)
 Yes 0.013 (0.048) 0.033 (0.041) 0.067 (0.083) 0.061 (0.071) 0.013 (0.057) 0.019 (0.034) 0.106 (0.072) 0.013 (0.048) 0.033 (0.041) 0.067 (0.083) 0.061 (0.071) 0.013 (0.057) 0.019 (0.034) 0.106 (0.072)
Household wealth indicator 0.073 0.045+ 0.144** 0.106 0.047 0.051* 0.117* 0.011 0.028 0.024 0.080* 0.062 0.033 0.073+
(0.049) (0.025) (0.043) (0.070) (0.057) (0.023) (0.046) (0.036) (0.044) (0.019) (0.037) (0.039) (0.023) (0.038)
Constant −1.196*** (0.145) −1.387*** (0.169) 0.086 (0.211) −0.994*** (0.221) −1.319*** (0.168) − 1.317*** (0.136) −0.260 (0.219) −1.488*** (0.122) − 1.245*** (0.182) −1.377*** (0.114) − 0.872*** (0.212) 0.393 (0.294) − 1.471*** (0.184) 0.311 (0.308)
Observations 248 946 946 248 248 946 946 248 248 946 946 946 946 946
R-squared 0.884 0.736 0.163 0.796 0.825 0.807 0.253 0.875 0.843 0.818 0.287 0.169 0.802 0.131
  1. Note: *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.1. All standard errors were clustered at village level. Numbers in parentheses are standard errors. The examiner’s ids were also controlled in all regression results. All scores are internally standardized. Bayley Cog Bayley Cognitive, Bayley RC and Bayley EC Bayley Receptive Communication and Bayley Expressive Communication, Bayley GM Bayley Gross Motor, Bayley FM Bayley Fine Motor, CREDI Cog CREDI Cognitive, CREDI Lang CREDI Language, CREDI Mot CREDI Motor, CREDI SE CREDI Social-emotional, ASQ SP ASQ Problem Solving, ASQ-3 Com ASQ-3 Communication, ASQ-3 GM ASQ-3 Gross Motor, ASQ-3 FM ASQ-3 Fine Motor, ASQ PS ASQ Personal-social