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Table 3 Review of bacterial pathogen patterns in patients with CNLDO [8,9,10,11, 13,14,15,16,17,18]

From: Lacrimal sac bacteriology and susceptibility pattern in infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in the 1st year of life: a cross-sectional study

Study Year of study Country No. of cases Age range
(mean)
Positive culture rate (%) Mixed infection rate (%) Sample collection method Dominant bacteria (%) Sensitivity test (%) Non-susceptibility (%)
Zheng (our study) 2017–2018 China 32 1.7–12 mons
(6.6 mons)
87.5 35.7 Irrigation Streptococcus pneumoniae (23.7) Streptococcus mitis (10.5) Haemophilus influenzae (7.9) Haemophilus haemolyticus (7.9)
Neisseriae (13.2)
Chloramphenicol (88)
Levofloxacin (84) Ceftriaxone (80)
Erythromycin (40) Sulfamethoxazole (32)
Bekmez 2017–2018 Turkey 70 12–36 mons
(25 mons)
28.6 NA Conjunctival swab Haemophilus haemolyticus (20)
Haemophilus influenzae (20)
Ciprofloxacine (85) Tetracycline (60) Gentamicin (40)
Penicilin (40)
NA
Prokosch 2007–2012 Germany 132 0–60 mons
(27 mons)
97 87 Pressure over LS
or irrigation
Streptococcus pneumoniae (28.5)
Staphylococcus aureus (18.3)
Haemophilus influenzae (8.7)
Moraxella catarrhalis (8.5)
Ciprofloxacin (99) Chloramphenicol (97)
Tobramycin (95)
Levofloxacin (95)
Penicillin (65)
Erythromycin (41)
Gentamicin (22)
Wong 2005–2010 China 16 0–84 mons
(26.4mons)
43.7 12.5 Conjunctival scraping Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8)
Haemophilus influenzae (12.5)
NA NA
Kuchar NA
(before 2000)
Austria 47 8–36 mons
(21 mons)
70 40 Pressure over LS Streptococcus pneumoniae (36.4)
Haemophilus influenzae (19.2)
Ofloxacin (84)
Tetracycline (84) Chloramphenicol (84)
Ciprofloxacin (62)
Norfloxacin (60)
Neomycin (63)
Gentamycin (54.8)
Tobramycin (57.5)
AL-Faky 1998–2008 Saudi Arabia 141 1–108 mons
(29.9 mons)
87.9 25.4 Pressure over LS Streptococcus pneumoniae (48.1)
Haemophilus influenzae (39.2)
Moraxella catarrhalis (12.7)
Staphylococcus aureus (6.6)
Bacitracin (NA) Polymyxin B (NA) NA
Prokosch 2007 Germany 66 6–16 mons 97 87 Irrigation Gram-pos:
Streptococcus pneumoniae (31)
Staphylococcus aureus (13)
Streptococcus epidermidis (13)
Gram-neg:
Branhamella (12)
Haemophilus influenzae (11)
Chloramphenicol (99)
Fusidic acid (99)
Ciprofloxacin (99)
Levofloxacin (95)
Tobramycin (95)
Erythromycin (41)
Gentamycin (22)
Usha NA
(before 2006)
India 187 0–60 mons
(14 mons)
83 11.7 Pressure over LS Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.7)
Haemophilus influenzae (31.3) Streptococcus viridans (14.7)
Gram-pos:
Chloramphenicol (98) Vancomycin (82) Ofloxacin (75)
Gram-neg:
Ofloxacin (83)
Ciprofloxacin (81)
Gram-pos:
Tobramycin (90) Gentamycin (66)
Gram-neg:
Amikacin (44)
Gentamycin (40)
Tobramycin (43)
Kim 1996–1999 Korea 50 0.7–12 mons 64 0 Irrigation Staphylococcus aureus (25)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6)
Staphylococcus aureus:
Vancomycin (100)
Ciprofloxacin (87.5)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
Ciprofloxacin (100)
Amikacin (100)
Getamicin (NA)
Penicillin G (NA)
Bareja NA
(before 1990)
India 87 NA 67.5 0.9 Conjunctival swab with or without pressure over LS Streptococcus pneumoniae (28.9)
Staphylococcus aureus (13.2)
Cloxacillin (77)
Erythromycin (68)
Gentamicin (46.9)
Penicilin (100)
Streptomycin (97)
Polymixin B (98)
MacEwen 1988 UK 158 0–12 mons 19.6 0.6 Conjunctival swab Haemophilus influenzae (12)
Staphylococcus aureus (8.9)
Moraxella catarrhalis (2.5)
NA NA
  1. Note: LS lacrimal sac, Mons months, NA not applicable