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Table 3 Anthropometric characteristics of the participants in the BMI and gender groups (mean ± SD)

From: Accelerated skeletal maturation is associated with overweight and obesity as early as preschool age: a cross-sectional study

Group N CA (years) SA (years) Relative SA (years) BMI (kg/m2) Weight (kg) Height (cm)
Total 1330 4.9 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 1.2** −0.1 ± 0.9 16.8 ± 2.1 20.8 ± 4.6 110.7 ± 7.8
 Males 730 4.9 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 1.2* −0.1 ± 0.9 17.0 ± 2.1 21.3 ± 4.7 111.4 ± 7.7
 Females 600 4.8 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 1.2** −0.1 ± 0.9 16.5 ± 2.2## 20.2 ± 4.5## 109.9 ± 7.7##
Thinness 102 4.8 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.2** −0.5 ± 0.9 13.7 ± 0.7 16.6 ± 1.9 110.0 ± 7.0
 Males 46 4.8 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.3** −0.4 ± 0.9 13.9 ± 0.6 17.0 ± 1.9 110.5 ± 6.9
 Females 56 4.8 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 1.2** −0.5 ± 0.9 13.6 ± 0.7# 16.3 ± 1.9 109.6 ± 7.0##
Normal 796 4.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 1.0** −0.3 ± 0.8 15.9 ± 0.9 18.9 ± 2.6 108.8 ± 7.1
 Males 431 4.8 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 1.1** −0.3 ± 0.8 16.0 ± 0.8 19.2 ± 2.6 109.4 ± 7.0
 Females 365 4.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 1.0** −0.2 ± 0.8 15.8 ± 0.9## 18.5 ± 2.6## 108.2 ± 7.1#
Overweight 286 5.1 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 1.2** 0.2 ± 0.9 18.2 ± 0.6 23.5 ± 3.3 113.2 ± 7.6
 Males 167 5.1 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 1.2** 0.3 ± 0.8 18.4 ± 0.6 23.8 ± 3.5 113.6 ± 7.7
 Females 119 5.1 ± 0.8 5.2 ± 1.3 0.2 ± 1.0 18.1 ± 0.5## 23.0 ± 3.1# 112.6 ± 7.5
Obese 146 5.3 ± 0.8 5.8 ± 1.4** 0.4 ± 1.1 21.1 ± 1.9 28.7 ± 4.9 116.3 ± 8.0
 Males 86 5.3 ± 0.7 5.7 ± 1.3** 0.4 ± 1.0 21.1 ± 1.7 29.1 ± 4.5 117.3 ± 7.6
 Females 60 5.3 ± 0.8 5.8 ± 1.5** 0.5 ± 1.1 21.1 ± 2.0 28.1 ± 5.3 114.9 ± 8.4
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, SD Standard Deviation, CA Chronological Age, SA Skeletal Age, relative SA: relative skeletal age (SA - CA). Statistics for SA vs. CA in columns
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. **P < 0.01
  4. Statistics for males vs. females in rows, #: P < 0.05, ##: P < 0.01