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Table 2 Participant characteristics

From: Toothbrush deterioration and parents’ suggestions to improve the design of toothbrushes used by children with special care needs

Characteristics N (%)
Age (yr) ± SD 3.64 ± 0.78
Male 187 (67.5)
Diagnosis
 Autism 86 (31.0)
 Developmental delay 71 (25.6)
 Down syndrome (DS), Cerebral Palsy (CP), or epilepsy 32 (11.6)
 Multiple diagnoses 88 (31.8)
Conceptual skills
 Average or high 38 (13.7)
 Limited 171 (61.7)
 Low 68 (24.5)
Practical skills
 Average or high 24 (8.7)
 Limited 142 (51.3)
 Low 111 (40.1)
Social skills
 Average or high 43 (15.5)
 Limited 175 (63.2)
 Low 59 (21.3)
Parents’ educational attainment
 9 years or below 37 (13.4)
 10–13 years 78 (28.2)
 14 years or above 162 (58.5)
Household monthly income (HKD)
 20,000 or below 109 (39.4)
 Above 20,000 168 (60.6)
Toothbrushing is a difficult task 171 (61.7)
Types of toothbrush
 Manual 258 (93.1)
 Electric 12 (4.3)
 Both manual and electric 7 (2.5)
Toothbrushing frequency
 Never/occasionally 44 (15.9)
 Once daily 89 (32.1)
 Twice daily or more 144 (52.0)
Toothbrushing duration
 Less than 1 min 76 (27.4)
 1–2 min 142 (51.3)
 2–3 min 47 (17.0)
 Over 3 min 12 (4.3)