Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison of the nurse participants’ correct responses in the Neonatal Extravasation Knowledge Test

From: Clinical practice guideline on the prevention and management of neonatal extravasation injury: a before-and-after study design

Items Correct response p-value*
Pre
F (%)
Post
F (%)
Prevention of Extravasation Injuries
 1. Confirm correct CVC catheter tip position radiologically immediately after insertion. 41 (77.36) 53 (100) < 0.001
 2. Assess peripheral IV site every 10 minutes when administer high-risk medications. 25 (47.17) 52 (98.11) < 0.001
 3. Assess peripheral IV site every 10 minutes for phenytoin administration. 28 (52.83) 53 (100) < 0.001
 4. Assess peripheral IV device patency prior to medication administration. 45 (84.91) 51 (96.23) NS
 5. Identify possible signs and symptoms of ECL, e.g., sudden cardiorespiratory collapse, respiratory distress, and edema along the CVC tract. 46 (86.79) 53 (100) NS
 6. Recognize ECL presentation, e.g., peritoneal effusion, pericardial effusion and pleural effusion. 44 (83.02) 53 (100) NS
Management of Extravasation Injuries
 1. Administer hyaluronidase for PIVE caused by parenteral nutrition. 15 (28.30) 41 (77.36) < 0.001
 2. Discontinue IV infusion therapy at once on detection of Grade 3 PIVE. 47 (88.68) 49 (92.45) NS
 3. Identify most appropriate nursing interventions for Grade two PIVE: stop infusion, remove peripheral IV catheter, elevate and hourly observation of the affected limb. 22 (41.51) 50 (94.34) < 0.001
 4. Give hyaluronidase on phenytoin related PIVE. 29 (54.72) 49 (92.45) < 0.001
  5. Identify the most appropriate actions when ECL presents with pericardial effusion. 29 (54.72) 52 (98.11) < 0.001
Risk Factors for Neonatal Extravasation Injuries
  1. Administer dopamine via a CVC. 52 (98.11) 53 (100) NS
 2. Identify the physical characteristics of neonates that are prone to extravasation injuries. 45 (84.91) 49 (92.45) NS
 3. Administer acyclovir via a PIVC is at a high risk of PIVE. 33 (62.26) 49 (92.45) < 0.001
 4. Identify high-risk medications for PIVE, e.g., dopamine, dextrose > 12.5%, parenteral nutrition, caffeine citrate. 25 (47.17) 50 (94.34) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: CVC Central venous catheter, ECL Extravasation from a central line, F Frequency, IV Intravenous, PIVC Peripheral Intravenous Catheter, PIVE Peripheral intravenous extravasation, NS Not significant
  2. *Comparisons using McNemar test; Level of significance (p < 0.003)