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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics and in-hospital complications between those with and without CHD

From: Impact of congenital heart disease on outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized for influenza infection

Variables Presence of CHD
Yes No
Total influenza cases 2174 123,296
Age, years (median, IQR) 3 (2–7) 5 (2–11)*
Female 977 (44.9%) 56,078 (45.8%)
Race  
 White 858 (45.0%) 48,547 (47.8%)
 Black 298 (15.6%) 20,522 (20.2%)
 Hispanic 575 (30.2%) 22,796 (22.4%)
 Others 174 (9.1%) 9733 (9.6%)
Discharge quarter
 Jan-Mar 678 (31.3%) 36,224 (29.4%)
 Apr-Jun 398 (18.3%) 15,321 (12.4%)
 Jul-Sep 193 (8.9%) 10,038 (8.2%)
 Oct-Dec 900 (41.5%) 61,642 (50.0%)
Comorbid conditions
 Asthma 521 (24.0%) 34,410 (27.9%)*
 Congenital respiratory anomalies 112 (5.1%) 704 (0.6%)*
 Congenital musculoskeletal anomalies 98 (4.5%) 1228 (1.0%)*
 Chromosomal anomalies 426 (19.6%) 1936 (1.6%)*
Complications  
 Respiratory failure 267 (12.3%) 6447 (5.2%)*
 Acute kidney injury 60 (2.8%) 1474 (1.2%)*
 Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) 262 (12.0%) 5529 (4.5%)*
 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) 67 (3.1%) 1877 (1.5%)*
 Myocarditis < 11 (NA)a 193 (0.2%)
 Tachyarrhythmias 54 (2.5%) 460 (0.4%)*
 Heart block/conduction disorders 75 (3.4%) 238 (0.2%)*
 Sudden cardiac arrest 18 (0.8%) 232 (0.2%)*
 ECMOa 12 (0.6%) 199 (0.2%)*
 In-hospital mortality 44 (2.0%) 643 (0.5%)*
  1. aExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  2. CHD: Congenital heart disease
  3. *P-value is < 0.001 for these comparisons
  4. aHealthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) restricts subjects < 11 to be reported