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Table 2 Results of the included studies

From: Does zinc with and without iron co-supplementation have effect on motor and mental development of children? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (year) Outcome Assessment tool Assessment time Conclusion
Ashworth 1998 [32] Development (motor, mental and behavior) BSID-II 6 and 12 month of age MDI: no difference PDI: no difference
Bentley 1997 [33] Motor development Time sampling observation method Enrollment, 3 and 7 months of supplementation Motor: no difference at 3 months follow up and better in zinc group at 7 months follow up(more time playing, sitting up and less time lying down and crying)
Black Baqui 2004 [22] Development (motor, mental and behavior) BSID-II Baseline and 12 month of age MDI: better in Iron+ zinc groupPDI: no difference
Black Sazawal 2004 [34] Development (motor, mental and behavior) BSID-II 6 and 10 months of age MDI: no differencePDI: no difference
Castillo-Durán 2001 [35] Development (motor and mental) BSID-II 6 and 12 months of age MDI: no differencePDI: no difference
Christian 2011 [36] Motor (fine and gross) functioninggeneral intelligenceexecutive functioning MABC and finger tapping testUNITStroop test, backward digit span, go/no-go tasks 7–9 years of age Motor: no differenceMental: no difference
Colombo 2014 [37] Development (motor and mental) BSID-II Baseline,12 and 18 months of age MDI: no differencePDI: no difference
Gardner 2005 [38] Development 4 subscales of the Griffiths Mental Development Scales Enrollment and 6 months follow up Hand and eye coordination: better in zinc group
Hamadani 2001 [39] Development (motor and mental) BSID-II 7 and 13 months of age 7 months assessment:MDI: no differencePDI: no difference13 months assessment:MDI: worse in zinc groupPDI: no difference
Heinig 2006 [40] Motor development Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) 4 (baseline) and 10 months of age Gross motor development: no difference
Jimenez 2007 [41] Development (motor and mental) BSID-II Baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age MDI: no differencePDI: better in zinc group at 6 months
Katz 2010 [42] Age at first walking unassisted Pictures of 14 sequential motor milestones/ Weekly interview with the child’s caregiver Mean age at first walking unassisted: no difference
Lind 2004 [43] Development (motor, mental and behavior) BSID-II Baseline and 12 months of age MDI: no differencePDI: no difference
Locks 2016 [44] Development (cognition, language, and motor) BSID-III 15 months of age No difference in any domains of BSID-III
Mathur 2015 [45] Neurodevelopment Amiel-Tison method 40 weeks conceptual age and 3 month corrected age Attention span: better in zinc group at 40 weeks conceptual ageHyper-excitability: higher number in control group at 40 weeks conceptual age and 3 month corrected age
Murray-Kolb 2012 [46] General intelligenceexecutive functioning UNITStroop test, backward digit span, go/no-go tasks 7–9 years of age Motor: no differenceMental: no difference
Olney 2006 [47] Motor development (the time it took for children to walk unassisted) picture chart containing 14 gross motor milestones based on the work of McGraw Every two week for one year Motor: no difference
Olney 2013 [23] Development (motor, social emotional, exploratory behavior and language) Picture chart containing 14 gross motor milestones Every two week for one year Gross motor: better in iron+ folic acid+ zinc in 5–9 months group and better in iron+ folic acid in 10–14 months groupMotor activity: better in iron+ folic acid+ zinc in 10–14 months group
Pongcharoen 2011 [48] Cognitive performance Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third edition (WISC-III; Thai version) and Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) 9 years old Mental: no difference
Prado 2016 [49] Development (motor, language, and personal-social development) Developmental Milestones Checklist II 18 months of age Motor: no difference
Sazawal 1996 [50] Activity levels Observation and recording 12 to 23 months of age Activity level: better in zinc group
Siegel 2011 [51] Cognitive development Information-processing measures that were part of the FTII and the A-not-B Task 39 and 52 week old Mental: no difference
Sudfeld 2019 [52] Development Koh’s Block Design testVerbal Fluency testEast African Neurodevelopment Tools 6–8 years old General intelligence: no differenceExecutive function: no difference
Surkan 2013 [53] Development (parental report of Motor and Language Milestones) Motor and language milestone instruments were adaptedfrom the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory Baseline and three month intervals for one year. Motor: no difference
Taneja 2005 [54] Development (motor and mental) BSID-II 4 months after supplementation MDI: no differencePDI: no difference
  1. N/A the data is not available in the article