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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and cytokine concentrations of study population at the time of blood sampling

From: Systemic TNFα correlates with residual β-cell function in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes

  Baseline visit Visit 6 months Visit 12 months
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
N (% females) 63 (33) 63 (33) 63 (33)
Age (years) 11.3 (3.3–17.7) 11.8 (3.8–18.2) 12.4 (4.4–18.7)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 51.73 (11.1) 49 (8) 53.05(13.4)
C-peptide, fasting (pmol/L) 194.89 (118.5) 172.46 (114.7) 148.95 (121.4)
C-peptide, stimulated*
(pmol/L)
685.54 (377.5)@# 518.3 (364.3) 446.59 (377.5)
BMI (kg/m2) 17.96 (2.8) 18.43 (3) 18.75 (3.1)
BMI-SDS -0.03 (1) 0.07 (1) 0.07 (1)
IFN-γ (pg/mL) 1.87 (2.05) 2.15 (5.08) 2.36 (5.2)
IL-10 (pg/mL) 0.63 (0.3) 0.56 (0.2) 0.57 (0.3)
IL-12p70 (pg/mL) 0.15 (0.1) 0.13 (0.1) 0.14 (0.1)
IL-2 (pg/mL) 0.12 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.09 (0.1)
IL-4 (pg/mL) 0.05 (0.0) 0.04 (0.0) 0.04 (0.0)
IL-6 (pg/mL) 0.42 (0.4) 0.4 (0.3) 0.36 (0.3)
IL-8 (pg/mL) 4.37 (1.7) 4.03 (0.9) 3.91 (1.1)
TNFα (pg/mL) 3.03 (0.7) 2.92 (0.7) 2.8 (0.8)
  1. Characteristics at time of blood sampling. Data is presented as mean (SD) or mean (range) where indicated. BMI Body mass index, BMI-SDS BMI standard deviation score, HbA1c Haemoglobin A1c. *P < 0.05 in comparison between groups evaluated using ANOVA. @P < 0.05 between baseline and 6 months #P < 0.05 between baseline and 12 months ¤P < 0.05 between 6 months and 12 months