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Table 4 Comparison of cantons with regard to clinical data, as a function of presence/absence in each identified high-incidence cluster and after the exclusion of patients with a known potential confounding factor

From: Spatial analysis of hypospadias cases in northern France: taking clinical data into account

  Neutral cantons Cluster #1 North-West Cluster #2 Center-East p
N = 525 N = 117 N = 112
Clinical presentation
Form, N (%):     0.406
 Anterior 299 (57.0%) 74 (63.2%) 67 (59.8%)  
 Middle 166 (31.6%) 35 (29.9%) 37 (33.0%)  
 Posterior 60 (11.4%) 8 (6.84%) 8 (7.14%)  
Chordee, N (%):     0.513
 None 299 (57.4%) 66 (56.4%) 74 (66.1%)  
  < 45° 111 (21.3%) 24 (20.5%) 19 (17.0%)  
  > 45° 111 (21.3%) 27 (23.1%) 19 (17.0%)  
Pregnancy
IUGR, N (%):     0.452
 No 475 (90.5%) 110 (94.0%) 103 (92.0%)  
 Yes 50 (9.52%) 7 (5.98%) 9 (8.04%)  
Preterm delivery, N (%):     0.016
 No 460 (87.8%) 113 (96.6%) 102 (91.1%)  
 Yes 64 (12.2%) 4 (3.42%) 10 (8.93%)  
Multiple pregnancy, N (%):     0.892
 No 510 (97.1%) 114 (97.4%) 108 (96.4%)  
 Yes 15 (2.86%) 3 (2.56%) 4 (3.57%)  
Medical consultation
 Age at 1st medical consultation (months), median [IQR] 10.0 [4.75;20.0] 9.00 [4.00;21.0] 6.00 [3.00;17.0] 0.051
 Follow-up (months), median [IQR] 29.0 [20.0;60.5] 29.0 [20.0;63.0] 29.0 [19.0;57.0] 0.75
  1. Note: IUGR intrauterine growth retardation. Statistical comparisons were performed using the Kruskal Wallis test for quantitative variables and the chi-squared test for qualitative variables