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Table 3 Differences in development milestones gains between children with severe Zika-related Microcephaly, divided by age groups, using the SWYC adapted form

From: Pediatric neurodevelopment by prenatal Zika virus exposure: a cross-sectional study of the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group Cohort

Development Milestones ≤ 24 months (n = 29) > 24 months (n = 82)  
Not yet Some what Very much Mean Rank Not yet Some what Very much Mean Rank P Valuea
Makes sounds that let you know he or she is happy or upset 0 6 23 53.5 5 6 71 56.9 0.44
Seems happy to see you 1 2 26 54.8 2 4 76 56.4 0.61
Follows a moving toy with his or her eyes 5 10 14 50.3 7 26 49 58.0 0.21
Turns head to find the person who is talking 0 9 20 53.5 5 14 63 56.9 0.53
Holds head steady when being pulled up to a sitting position 9 12 8 54.3 25 30 27 56.6 0.73
Brings hands together 14 6 9 53.9 40 8 34 56.7 0.66
Laughs 1 5 23 50.2 3 2 77 58.0 0.03
Keeps head steady when held in a sitting position 9 14 6 50.3 19 37 26 58.0 0.23
Makes sounds like “ga,“ “ma,“ or “ba” 19 4 6 51.0 46 8 28 57.8 0.27
Looks when you call his or her name 3 9 17 50.3 7 15 60 58.0 0.17
Rolls over 16 8 5 52.4 42 16 24 57.3 0.45
Passes a toy from one hand to the other 26 0 3 52.9 67 4 11 57.1 0.35
Looks for you or another caregiver when upset 7 8 14 56.2 30 6 46 55.9 0.96
Holds two objects and bangs them together 26 1 2 54.7 71 3 8 56.5 0.66
Holds up arms to be picked up 26 2 1 50.8 64 4 14 57.8 0.14
Gets into a sitting position by him or herself 28 1 0 52.3 72 1 9 57.3 0.16
Picks up food and eats it 24 1 4 56.6 69 3 10 55.8 0.85
Pulls up to standing 25 4 0 52.0 65 1 16 57.4 0.26
Plays games like “peekaboo” or “patacake” 24 3 2 55.0 67 2 13 56.4 0.76
Calls you “mama” or “dada” or similar name 26 2 1 53.3 69 0 13 57.0 0.39
Looks around when you say things like “Where’s your bottle?“ or “Where’s your blanket?“ 24 4 1 52.8 64 0 18 57.1 0.38
Copies sounds that you make 26 1 2 52.9 67 9 6 57.1 0.35
Walks across a room without help 29 0 0 53.5 77 0 5 56.9 0.18
Follows directions like “Come here” or “give me the ball” 28 1 0 51.8 71 4 7 57.5 0.13
Runs 29 0 0 53.5 77 0 5 56.9 0.18
Walks upstairs with help 28 0 1 55.4 78 0 4 56.2 0.75
Kicks a ball 27 2 0 57.8 80 0 2 55.4 0.29
Names at least 5 familiar objects like ball or milk 28 0 1 54.9 77 1 4 56.4 0.59
Names at least 5 body parts like nose, hand, or tummy 29 0 0 55.5 81 0 1 56.2 0.55
Climbs up a ladder at a playground 28 1 0 55.3 78 0 4 56.2 0.72
Uses words like “me” or “mine” 28 1 0 55.9 79 0 3 56.0 0.93
Jumps off the ground with two feet 28 1 0 55.9 79 0 3 56.0 0.93
Puts 2 or more words together like “more water” or “go outside” 29 0 0 55.0 80 1 1 56.3 0.40
Uses words to ask for help 28 1 0 55.4 78 1 3 56.2 0.73
  1. a Mann-Whitney U test