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Table 1 Birth characteristics, neurological and radiological characteristics of groups of infants with severe and moderate Zika related microcephaly, as well as those exposed and neurotypical controls

From: Pediatric neurodevelopment by prenatal Zika virus exposure: a cross-sectional study of the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group Cohort

Biological and radiological characteristics Study Groups
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4  
Severe Microcephaly
(n = 114)
Moderate microcephaly
(n = 20)
ZIKV maternal
infection a
(n = 94)
Controls b
(n = 46)
P Value
Sex, No. (%)
  Female 64 (56.1) 12 (60.0) 47 (50.0) 25 (54.3) .786
  Male 50 (43.9) 8 (40.0) 47 (50.0) 21 (45.7)
Prematurity, Weeks of Gestational Age, No. (%)
  < 37 16 (14.2) 4 (25.0) 6 (7.9) 7 (15.2) .249
  ≥ 37 97 (85.8) 12 (75.0) 70 (92.1) 39 (84.8)
  Missing 1 4 18 0
Birthweight, g, No. (%)
  < 2500 28 (25.5) 10 (58.8)c 5 (7.1) 2 (4.3) < 0.001
  2500–2999 47 (42.7) 3 (17.6) 14 (20.0) 12 (26.1)
  ≥ 3000 35 (31.8)    32 (69.6)
  Missing 4 3 4 (23.5) 51 (72.9)
Small-for-gestational age, No. (%)
  Yes 29 (26.4) 8 (47.1)c 5 (7.1) 2 (4.3) < 0.001
  No 81 (73.6) 9 (52.9) 65 (92.9) 44 (95.7)
  Missing 4 3 24 0
Clinical neurological abnormalities, No. (%)
  Yes 112 (98.2)c 12 (60.0) 10 (11.1) 3 (7.5) < 0.001
  No 2 (1.8) 8 (40.0) 80 (88.9) 37 (92.5)
  Missing 0 0 4 6
Neuroimaging abnormalities, No. (%)
  Yes 103 (97.2)c 6 (37.5) 5 (11.6) 0 (0) < 0.001
  No 3 (2.8) 10 (62.5) 38 (88.4)d 46 (100)
  Missing 8 4 51 0
  1. The number of children varied due to missing values
  2. aNormocephalic children born to mothers ZIKV PCR+
  3. bNormocephalic children, considered neurotypical controls
  4. cCells making the greatest contribution to significant results
  5. dFor Group 3 brain ultrasound was performed within the first 6 months of life. For children who had the first evaluation over 6 months, neuroimaging was performed only according to clinical indication