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Table 2 Management and clinical outcomes of patients presenting with head trauma pre- and post-PECARN rules implementation

From: Does implementation of the PECARN rules for minor head trauma improve patient-centered outcomes in a lower resource emergency department: a retrospective cohort study

Variables, n (%) Pre-PECARN
(N = 425)
Post-PECARN
(N = 937)
p-value
Length of stay, mean in minutes (±SD) 75.2 (± 76.6) 69.3 (± 68.1) 0.18
Diagnosed with ciTBIa 8 (1.9) 7 (0.7) 0.06
 Neurosurgical intervention 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0.33
 Admission > 2 nights 4 (50.0) 5 (71.4) 0.4
 Admission for persistent neurologic symptoms and signs 4 (50.0) 3 (42.9) 0.78
Consult Neurology/Neurosurgery 28 (6.6) 41 (4.4) 0.09
CT imaging 92 (21.6) 174 (18.6) 0.18
 No acute post traumatic change 84 (91.3) 161 (92.5) 0.73
 Positive findingsc 8 (8.7) 13 (7.5) 0.73
Disposition
 Home 402 (94.6) 885 (94.5) 0.2
 Inpatient/PICU 10 (2.4) 12 (1.3)
 Transfer/AMA 13 (3.1) 40 (4.3)
Discharge instructionsb 187 (44.0) 478 (51.0) 0.02
Bounce backs 31 (7.3) 65 (6.9) 0.81
 CT imaging 2 (6.5) 8 (12.3) 0.38
 Positive findingsc 1 (3.2) 1 (1.5) 0.59
Disposition
 Home 30 (96.8) 61 (92.4) 0.66
 Inpatient 1 (3.2) 4 (6.1)
 AMA 0 (0.0) 1 (1.5)
  1. aciTBI: Clinically important traumatic brain injury: death, neurosurgical intervention, intubation for > 24 h, hospital admission for ≥2 nights
  2. bDischarge instructions consisted of written discharge instructions related to head trauma
  3. cPositive findings: intracranial hemorrhage/contusion, cerebral edema, traumatic infarction, diffuse axonal/shearing injury, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, midline shift, skull diastasis, pneumocephalus, or depressed skull fracture