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Table 2 Subgroup analysis on the characteristics of children with COVID-19

From: Children with COVID-19 behaving milder may challenge the public policies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Wuhan Outside Wuhan
R (95% CI) I2 p-value R (95% CI) I2 p-value
Demographic information
 Male 43.5(17.3–71.6) 69% 0.04 54.8(53.2–56.5) 49% < 0.01
Age
 < 1y 38.7(0.0–96.5) 94% < 0.01 9.4(4.1–16.1) 91% < 0.01
 1-4y 31.8(0.0–1.0) 93% < 0.01 8.8(7.7–9.9) 48% 0.01
 5-9y 3.5(0.0–22.8) 35% 0.22 24.5(18.8–30.5) 69% < 0.01
 10-14y 0.0(0.0–12.4) 0% 0.90 23.3(21.8–24.8) 31% 0.09
 15-19y 0.0(0.0–12.4) 0% 0.00 8.7(3.3–15.7) 90% < 0.01
 Comorbidities 0.0(0.0–1.6) 0% 0.80 12.6(3.5–25.4) 92% < 0.01
Severity of illness
 Mild & Common NA NA 1.0(99.1–1.0) 0% 0.99
 Severe NA NA 0.0(0.0–0.6) 0% 1.00
 Critical NA NA 0.0(0.0–0.5) 0% 1.00
Epidemiology
 Linkage to Wuhan 96.4(70.4–1.0) 78% 0.01 29.7 (21.0–39.0) 54% < 0.01
 Family cluster 92.5(87.6–0.965) 0% 0.33 79.2(68.0–88.8) 83% < 0.01
Clinical manifestations
 Asymptomatic 19.1(13.0–25.9) 17% 0.30 19.9(12.2–28.6) 86% < 0.01
 Fever 67.0(25.9–97.8) 83% < 0.01 51.6(42.5–60.7) 87% < 0.01
 Mild (37.7 °C–38.0 °C) 6.2(2.4–11.2) 0% 0.54 20.8(15.5–26.5) 23% 0.21
 Moderate (38.1 °C–39.0 °C) 19.1(13.0–25.9) 17% 0.30 15.1(7.0–24.9) 60% < 0.01
 High (39.1 °C-) 54.7(0.0–1.0) 96% < 0.01 5.9(2.7–9.8) 0% 0.48
 Cough 61.5(23.2–93.7) 81% < 0.01 40.2(33.7–46.8) 73% < 0.01
 Expectoration 14.3(0.0–51.7) NA NA 1.3(0.0–3.9) 44% 0.03
 Pharyngeal erythema 38.1(3.9–80.0) 84% < 0.01 2.3(0.0–10.7) 80% < 0.01
 Sore throat 0.0(0.0–0.0) 0% 0.56 6.2 (1.4–13.0) 91% < 0.01
 Rhinorrhea 4.9(1.5–9.5) 0% 0.45 3.8 (0.0–11.6) 93% < 0.01
 Stuffy nose 1.8(0.0–5.4) 0% 0.94 1.6(0.0–5.1) 51% < 0.01
 Diarrhea 4.8(1.4–9.5) 0% 0.70 4.1(1.4–7.7) 51% < 0.01
 Vomiting 14.4(0–52.9) 83% < 0.01 3.4(1.9–5.1) 18% 0.22
 Tachypnea/dyspnea 16.4(1.6–38.6) 55% 0.11 4.3(2.7–6.1) 47% < 0.01
 Fatigue/myalgia 4.5(1.3–9.1) 0% 0.65 2.6(0.1–6.8) 75% < 0.01
Laboratory findings
 WBC decreased 39.6(6.6–78.4) 74% 0.05 8.4(5.2–12.2) 26% 0.15
 WBC increased 0.0(0.0–26.8) NA NA 10.7(6.9–15.1) 0% 0.62
 L decreased 48.4(0.0–1.0) 97% < 0.01 8.8(3.0–16.5) 68% < 0.01
 L increased 0.0(0.0–26.8) NA NA 16.3(10.5–22.8) 43% 0.06
 ALT increased 9.9(5.2–15.5) 0% 0.57 4.2(1.4–8.0) 41% 0.06
 AST increased 33.4(0.0–86.0) 86% < 0.01 8.9(3.1–16.7) 60% < 0.01
 LDH increased 33.3(1.3–76.4) NA NA 21.4(7.8–38.5) 80% < 0.01
 CRP increased 45.9(0.0–98.9) 90% < 0.01 9.6(2.7–19.0) 76% < 0.01
Radiographic evaluation
 Normal 13.1(7.7–19.3) 0% 0.62 39.7(29.8–50.1) 66% < 0.01
 GGO 30.9(23.6–38.6) 0% 0.67 38.1(29.1–47.5) 51% < 0.01
 Consolidation 0.0(0.0–31.7) NA NA 11.4(1.9–25.3) 82% < 0.01
 Unilateral compromised 13.6(3.6–27.3) 18% 0.27 30.6(23.6–37.9) 40% 0.07
 Bilateral compromised 38.0(0.0–98.7) 90% < 0.01 20.3(7.7–36.0) 78% < 0.01
Therapy
Antiviral treatment
 Interferon 100.0(73.2–100.0) NA NA 59.5(21.5–92.5) 94% < 0.01
 Lopinavir-ritonavir 0.0(0.0–26.8) NA NA 28.5(13.6–45.8) 83% < 0.01
 Ribavirin 33.3(1.3–76.4) NA NA 2.6(0.4–6.0) 39% 0.08
 Oseltamivir 100.0(73.2–100.0) NA NA 6.1(0.0–19.2) 85% < 0.01
 Arbidor 0.0(0.0–26.8) NA NA 6.5(0.0–19.3) 84% < 0.01
 Antibiotics 100.0(73.2–100.0) NA NA 6.5(0.8–15.2) 61% < 0.01
 Corticosteroid 66.7(23.6–98.7) NA NA 0.0(0.0–0.2) 0% 1.00
 Immunoglobin 16.7(0.0,58.6) NA NA 0.5(0.0–3.8) 54% < 0.01
 Mechanic ventilation 0.0(0.0–1.4) 0% 0.96 0.0(0.0–0.2) 0% 1.00
Outcome
 Discharged 90.3(84.7–94.9) 0% 0.38 82.6(64.4–95.9) 92% < 0.01
 ICU admission 0.5(0.0–7.5) 28% 0.25 0.1(0.0–1.4) 53% < 0.01
Death 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0 0.81 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0% 0.97
  1. Note: WBC white blood cell counts, L lymphocyte counts, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, CRP C-reactive protein, GGO ground-glass opacity, ICU intensive care unit
  2. NA: not applicable, only one or no study included in the subgroup