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Table 1 Results of Meta-analysis on children with COVID-19

From: Children with COVID-19 behaving milder may challenge the public policies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Events/Total N of studies Mean/Pooled incidence (%) 95% CI I2 (%) P- value Publication bias (p- value)
Demographic information
 Male 2305/4218 29 53.6 49.4–57.7 50 < 0.01 0.2161
 Age (years) 4300/4300 29 7.04 5.06–9.08 99.79 < 0.01 < 0.05
  < 1 602/4176 24 12.0 6.3–18.8 92 < 0.01 0.7211
 1–4 456/3791 21 14.9 10.5–19.6 60 < 0.01 < 0.05
 5–9 619/3791 21 23.2 17.7–29.0 67 < 0.01 < 0.05
 10–14 960/3791 21 23.1 21.6–24.6 42 0.02 0.2341
 15–19 1253/3962 21 5.8 0.9–13.3 95 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Comorbidities 159/927 12 9.9 2.0–21.5 94 < 0.01 0.5658
Epidemiology
 Linkage to Wuhan 275/465 21 39.8 18.0–63.5 95 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Family cluster 525/704 20 81.5 71.0–90.3 86 < 0.01 0.5347
Severity of disease
 Mild & Common 344/347 14 100.0 99.1–100.0 0 1.00 0.4795
 Severe 2/347 14 0 0.0–0.6 0 1.0 0.0968
 Critical 1/347 14 0 0.0–0.5 0 1.0 < 0.05
Clinical manifestations
 Asymptomatic 248/1726 28 18.9 12.1–26.6 86 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Fever 941/2017 29 52.7 44.3–62.0 87 < 0.01 0.1689
 Mild (37.7 °C–38.0 °C) 72/426 14 19.2 12.0–27.4 56 < 0.01 0.0575
 Moderate (38.1 °C–39.0 °C) 95/433 15 15.5 9.0–22.9 54 < 0.01 0.0819
 High (39.1 °C-) 44/438 15 8.2 2.8–15.3 66 < 0.01 0.5681
 Cough 1035/2017 29 41.9 35.7–48.1 72 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Expectoration 14/270 17 1.4 0.0–4.1 43 0.03 0.464
 Pharyngeal erythema 105/429 17 6.0 0.0–19.1 91 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Sore throat 425/1985 27 5.0 0.6–11.8 93 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Rhinorrhea 455/1827 27 3.5 0.1–9.8 93 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Stuffy nose 26/592 24 1.0 0.1–2.5 46 < 0.01 0.4097
 Diarrhea 98/1021 26 4.2 1.8–7.3 45 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Vomiting 69/1021 26 3.5 2.1–5.1 35 0.04 0.0632
 Tachypnea/dyspnea 117/1057 27 2.5 1.6–4.8 72 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Fatigue/myalgia 103/1044 25 2.7 0.3–6.4 73 < 0.01 < 0.05
Laboratory findings
 WBC decreased 86/509 20 10.6 5.4–16.8 60 < 0.01 0.1130
 WBC increased 38/302 18 10.3 6.6–14.6 0 0.62 0.6663
 L decreased 56/497 19 10.8 3.9–19.7 80 < 0.01 0.131
 L increased 33/182 13 15.4 9.8–21.7 43 0.05 0.7734
 ALT increased 39/405 15 6.5 3.8–9.6 43 0.04 0.3616
 AST increased 58/423 14 10.9 5.0–18.2 65 < 0.01 0.7864
 LDH increased 51/183 13 23.0 8.8–38.3 79 < 0.01 0.7704
 CRP increased 107/537 18 12.3 5.4–21.0 77 < 0.01 0.2760
Radiographic evaluation
 Normal 166/501 23 37.4 28.0–47.4 77 < 0.01 < 0.05
 GGO 169/456 19 35.7 31.0–40.5 49 < 0.01 0.6935
 Consolidation 38/224 14 10.5 1.6–23.6 80 < 0.01 0.7874
 Unilateral compromised 93/365 15 28.2 19.4–37.8 55 0.01 0.0912
 Bilateral compromised 74/365 15 21.9 10.4–35.5 80 < 0.01 0.2329
Therapy
 Oxygen therapy 38/480 17 4.9 2.7–7.5 22 0.2 0.2031
Antiviral treatmen
 Interferon 140/370 15 63.0 25.5–93.9 98 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Lopinavir-ritonavir 68/216 13 26.0 11.8–42.7 83 < 0.01 0.5968
 Ribavirin 14/216 13 2.9 0.5–6.4 46 0.03 0.8658
 Oseltamivir 40/216 13 10.5 0.5–27.2 88 < 0.01 0.755
 Arbidor 35/216 13 5.9 0.0–17.8 82 < 0.01 0.1585
 Antibiotics 23/182 13 11.3 1.8–25.4 79 < 0.01 0.1121
 Corticosteroid 6/387 16 0.0 0.0–0.4 13 0.30 < 0.05
 Immunoglobin 8/381 16 0.0 0.0–0.3 55 < 0.01 < 0.05
 Mechanic ventilation 6/737 23 0.0 0.0–0.2 0 1.0 0.1143
Outcomes
 Discharged 419/553 20 84.1 69.6–95.1 92 < 0.01 0.7479
 ICU admission 32/1587 28 0.1 0.0–1.3 51 < 0.01 0.1641
 Death 4/4278 14 0.0 0.0–0.0 0 1 < 0.05
  1. Note: WBC white blood cell counts, L lymphocyte counts, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, CRP C-reactive protein, GGO ground-glass opacity, ICU intensive care unit
  2. If the observed index wasn’t reported in a research, 0 cases were calculated as occurred
  3. Linkage to Wuhan referred to children who resided in Wuhan or travelled to Wuhan or contacted with people from Wuhan before the onset of infection
  4. Family cluster was defined as more than one infected family member residing with the child