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Table 2 Summary of findings using GRADE

From: Exploring the efficacy of using hypertonic saline for nebulizing treatment in children with bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Summary of findings:
3% Hypertonic Saline compared to 0.9% Normal Saline for ped bronchitis
Patient or population: ped bronchitis
Intervention: 3% Hypertonic Saline
Comparison: 0.9% Normal Saline
Outcomes Anticipated absolute effects* (95% CI) Relative effect(95% CI) № of participants (studies) Certainty of the evidence(GRADE) Comments
Risk with 0.9% Normal Saline Risk with 3% Hypertonic Saline
CSS The mean CSS was −3.57 to 8.8 point MD 0.93 point lower(1.23 lower to 0.62 lower) 2010(11 RCTs) LOW a,b  
RDAI The mean RDAI was −4.7 to 5.32 point MD 0.6 point lower(0.95 lower to 0.26 lower) 1369(5 RCTs) MODERATE a  
LOS The mean LOS was 1.4 to 7.49 days MD 0.54 days lower(0.86 lower to 0.23 lower) 2055(20 RCTs) LOW a,b  
Rate of hospitalisation 402 per 1000 342 per 1000(298 to 394) RR 0.85(0.74 to 0.98) 1710(8 RCTs) MODERATE a  
Rate of re-admission 135 per 1000 97 per 1000(53 to 180) RR 0.72(0.39 to 1.33) 485(4 RCTs) MODERATE a  
Time of sleeping The mean time of sleeping was 4.54 to 7.32 h MD 1.72 h higher(0.43 lower to 3.88 higher) 110(2 RCTs) LOW a,b  
Frequency of wake-up in the night The mean frequency of wake-up in the night was 3.11 to 9.28 time MD 5.61 time lower(6.54 lower to 4.67 lower) 110(2 RCTs) MODERATE a  
  1. *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI)
  2. CI: Confidence interval; MD: Mean difference; RR: Risk ratio
  3. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  4. High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  5. Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  6. Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  7. Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect
  8. Explanations
  9. a. The overall of Risk of Bias was some concern
  10. b. I2 > 75% (statistically significant)