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Table 1 Characteristics of the included trials

From: Exploring the efficacy of using hypertonic saline for nebulizing treatment in children with bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Patients Intervention Comparison Outcome
year   Average age (male %) 3% H/S Additional drugs 0.9% N/S Additional drugs  
Country RSV positive rate
Al-Ansari et al. 2010 [30]
[?]Saudi Arabia
< 18 mon
Inpatients
n = 114
3.9 mon (59.1%)
No information
5 mL (n = 58) +  1.5 mg epinephrine 5 mL (n = 56) +  1.5 mg epinephrine LOS
CSS
Angoulvant et al. 2017 [31]
France
6 wk. ~ 12 mon
ED
n = 772
3 mon (60.2%)
86.4%
4 mL (n = 385)   4 mL (n = 387)   RDAI
ROH
Adverse events
Anil et al. 2010 [32]
Turkey
6 wk. ~ 24 mon
ED
n = 149
9.5 mon (64.5%)
No information
1) 4 mL (n = 39)
2) 4 mL (n = 36)
+  1.5 mg epinephrine
+  2.5 mg salbutamol
1) 4 mL (n = 38)
2) 4 mL (n = 36)
+  1.5 mg epinephrine
+  2.5 mg salbutamol
ROH
ROR
Everard et al. 2014 [8]
UK
< 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 291
3.4 mon (54.5%)
61.5%
4 mL (n = 142) + standard care (n = 149)
*Nebulizer use not reported
+ standard care LOS
RDAI
Flores et al. 2016 [27]
Portugal
< 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 68
3.6 mon (52.9%)
85.4%
3 mL (n = 33) +  1.25 mg salbutamol 3 mL (n = 35) + 1.25 mg salbutamol LOS
CSS
Florin et al. 2014 [28]
USA
2 ~ 24 mon
ED
n = 62
6.7 mon (45.2%)
No information
4 mL (n = 31)   4 mL (n = 31)   ROH
Grewal et al. 2009 [33]
Canada
6 wk. ~ 12 mon
ED
n = 46
5 mon (60.9%)
82.2%
2.5 mL (n = 23) +  0.5 mL 2.25% epinephrine 2.5 mL (n = 23) +  0.5 mL 2.25% epinephrine RDAI
ROH
ROR
Hou et al. 2016 [34]
China
1 ~ 11 mon
Inpatients
n = 34
6 M (50.4%)
No information
(n = 17)
*how many milliliters not reported
+  1.25 ml atrovent
+  1 ml budesonide
(n = 17)
*how many milliliters not reported
+  1.25 ml atrovent
+  1 ml budesonide
LOS
TOS
FOWITN
Ipek et al.2011 [35]
Turkey
< 24 mon
ED
n = 120
7.9 mon (59.2%)
No information
1) 4 mL (n = 30)
2) 4 mL (n = 30)
+  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol 1) 4 mL (n = 30)
2) 4 mL (n = 30)
+  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol ROH
Islam et al. 2018 [36]
Bangladesh
1 ~ 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 90
5.4 mon (56.6%)
No information
4 mL (n = 45)   4 mL (n = 45)   LOS
CSS
Kanjanapradap et al. 2018 [37]
Thailand
6 mon~ 5 years
Inpatients
n = 47
20.1 mon (60%)
25.5%
3.5 mL (n = 22) +  2.5 mg salbutamol 3.5 mL (n = 25) +  2.5 mg salbutamol  
Khanal et al. 2015 [38]
Nepal
6 wk. ~ 24 mon
ED/OPD
n = 100
9.7 M (48%)
No information
4 mL (n = 50) +  1.5 mg epinephrine 4 mL (n = 50) +  1.5 mg epinephrine ROR
Kose et al. 2016 [39]
Turkey
1 ~ 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 70
7.6 mon (40.3%)
No information
2.5 mL (n = 35) +  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol 2.5 mL (n = 35) +  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol LOS
CSS
Kuzik et al. 2007 [40]
Canada
< 18 mon
Inpatients
n = 91
4.7 mon (59.4%)
68.5%
4 mL (n = 45)   4 mL (n = 46)   LOS
Kuzik et al. 2010 [41]
Canada
< 24 mon
ED
n = 88
8.9 mon (77.5%)
47%
History of asthma
4 mL (n = 44) +  1 mg salbutamol 4 mL (n = 44) +  1 mg salbutamol RDAI
ROH
Li et al. 2014 [42]
China
2 ~ 18 mon
OPD
n = 84
7.2 mon (73.3%)
No information
2 mL (n = 42)   2 mL (n = 42)   CSS
Luo et al. 2010 [44]
China
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 93
5.8 mon (60.2%)
69.9%
4 mL (n = 50) +  2.5 mg salbutamol 4 mL (n = 43) +  2.5 mg salbutamol LOS
CSS
Luo et al. 2011 [43]
China
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 112
5.9 mon (56.3%)
73.2%
4 mL (n = 57)   4 mL (n = 55)   LOS
CSS
Mahesh Kumar et al. 2013 [45]
India
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 40
5.9 mon (62.5%)
No information
3 mL (n = 20) +  0.15 mg/kg albuterol 3 mL (n = 20) +  0.15 mg/kg albuterol LOS
Mandelberg et al. 2003 [46]
Israel
< 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 52
2.9 mon (57.7%)
86.5%
4 mL (n = 27) +  1.5 mg epinephrine 4 mL (n = 25) +  1.5 mg epinephrine LOS
CSS
Miraglia et al. 2012 [47]
Italy
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 106
4.5 mon (65.1%)
82%
4 mL (n = 52) +  1.5 mg epinephrine 4 mL (n = 54) +  1.5 mg epinephrine LOS
CSS
Morikawa et al. 2018 [48]
Japan
< 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 128
4.3 mon (39.2%)
No information
2 mL (n = 63) +  0.5% 0.1 mL salbutamol 2 mL (n = 65) +  0.5% 0.1 mL salbutamol LOS
Ojha et al. 2014 [49]
Nepal
6 wk. ~ 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 59
8.5 mon (74%)
No information
4 mL (n = 28)   4 mL (n = 31)   LOS
Pandit et al. 2013 [50]
India
2 ~ 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 100
Not reported (Not reported)
No information
4 mL (n = 51) +  1 mL adrenaline 4 mL (n = 49) +  1 mL adrenaline LOS
Ratajczyk-Pekrul et al. 2016 [51]
Poland
< 18 mon
Inpatients
n = 78
4.9 mon (58.9%)
53.5%
3 mL (n = 41) +  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol 3 mL (n = 37) +  0.15 mg/kg salbutamol LOS
Sarrell et al. 2002 [52]
Israel
< 24 mon
OPD
n = 65
12.5 mon (59%)
80%
2 mL (n = 33) +  5 mg terbutaline 2 mL (n = 32) +  5 mg terbutaline ROH
Sharma et al. 2013 [53]
India
1 ~ 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 248
8.5 mon (76.2%)
No information
4 mL (n = 125) +  2.5 mg salbutamol 4 mL (n = 123) +  2.5 mg salbutamol LOS
Silver et al. 2015 [54]
USA
< 12 mon
Inpatients
n = 190
4.2 mon (61%)
67.5%
History of asthma
4 mL (n = 93)   4 mL (n = 97)   ROR
Tal et al. 2006 [55]
Israel
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 41
2.6 mon (56.1%)
80.5%
4 mL (n = 21) +  1.5 mg epinephrine 4 mL (n = 20) +  1.5 mg epinephrine LOS
CSS
Teunissen et al. 2014 [56]
The Netherlands
< 24 mon
Inpatients
n = 164
3.4 mon (57.1%)
86.2%
4 mL (n = 84) +  2.5 mg salbutamol 4 mL (n = 80) +  2.5 mg salbutamol LOS
Wang et al. 2014 [57]
China
2 ~ 14 mon
Inpatients
n = 76
5.8 mon (56.6%)
No information
2 mL (n = 37) +  0.5 ml salbutamol
+  0.5 mg budesonide
2 mL (n = 39) +  0.5 ml salbutamol
+  0.5 mg budesonide
LOS
TOS
FOWITN
Wu et al. 2014 [58]
USA
< 24 mon
ED
n = 408
6.5 mon (56.8%)
62.4%
4 mL (n = 211)   4 mL (n = 197)   RDAI
ROH
  1. 1. ED, emergency department; OPD, outpatient department; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus
  2. 2. 3% HS, 3% hypertonic saline; 0.9% NS, 0.9% normal saline
  3. 3. Epinephrine: Adrenaline; Atrovent, Salbutamol, Albuterol, Terbutaline: Bronchodilator; Budesonide: Corticosteroids
  4. 4. CSS, clinical severity score; RDAI, respiratory distress assessment instrument; LOS, length of hospital stay; ROH, rate of hospitalization; ROR, rate of re-admission; TOS, time of sleeping; FOWITN, frequency of waking up in the night