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Table 4 Comparison of the basic situation and treatment of unintentional suffocation between children less than 1 year old and children aged 1 to 4 years old

From: Healthy China 2030: how to control the rising trend of unintentional suffocation death in children under five years old

Indicators < 1 year old 1–4 years old χ2 P
N Proportion(%) N Proportion(%)
1. Gender
 Male 2331 56.7 541 65.7 22.486 < 0.001
 Female 1766 43.0 281 34.1
 Missing 12 0.3 2 0.2
2. Urban and rural areas
 Rural 2906 70.7 550 66.7 62.854 < 0.001
 Urban 1203 29.3 262 31.8
 Missing 0 0 12 1.5
3. Quarter of death
 First quarter 1037 25.2 275 33.4 122.605 < 0.001
 Second quarter 541 13.2 199 24.2
 Third quarter 742 18.1 131 15.8
 Fourth quarter 1789 43.5 219 26.6
4. Household registration
 Local household registration 4019 97.8 820 99.5 10.818 0.004
 Non-local household registration 80 2 4 0.5
 Missing 10 0.2 0 0.0
5. Birth weight
 < 2500 g 361 8.8 3 0.4 88.129 < 0.001
 2500 g–4000 g 3635 88.4 816 99.0
 > 4000 g 56 1.4 1 0.1
 Missing 57 1.4 4 0.5
6. Gestational age
 < 37 weeks 287 7.0 2 0.2 90.321 < 0.001
 37–40 weeks 3583 87.2 811 98.4
 > 40 weeks 176 4.3 7 0.8
 Missing 63 1.5 4 0.6
7. Place of death
 Hospital 867 21.1 224 27.2 181.765 < 0.001
 On the way to see a doctor 499 12.1 204 24.8
 On the way home after transfer or treatment 614 14.9 146 17.7
 Home 1906 46.4 245 29.7
 Missing 223 5.5 5 0.6
8. Antemortem treatment
 Hospitalization 502 12.2 94 11.4 252.243 < 0.001
 Outpatient 326 7.9 210 25.5
 Untreated 2942 71.6 510 61.9
 Missing 339 8.3 10 1.2
9. Main reasons for not being treated or not seeking medical treatment
 Economic difficulties 10 0.3 0 0 67.487 < 0.001
 Traffic inconvenience 22 0.8 4 0.8
 Too late to take child to the hospital. 2406 81.8 430 84.3
 Parents thought that the condition was not serious. 31 1.1 2 0.4
 Other 114 3.9 12 2.4
 Missing 359 12.1 62 12.1
10. Diagnostic basis of cause of death   
 Pathological autopsy 11 0.3 5 0.6 38.556 < 0.001
 Clinical 1371 33.4 364 44.2
 Postmortem inference 2679 65.2 448 54.4
 Missing 48 1.1 7 0.8