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Table 3 Performance of the diaper-embedded urine test nitrites in the screening of bacterial culture-confirmed UTIa

From: Diaper-embedded urine test device for the screening of urinary tract infections in children: a cohort study

Nitrite Sensitivity % (95% CI) Specificity % (95% CI) PPV % (95% CI) NPV % (95% CI)
Group 1 (n = 528)
 Embedded test 63/131 48.1 39.3–57.0 384/397 96.7 94.5–98.3 63/76 82.9 72.5–90.1 384/452 85.0 81.3–88.1
 Urine dipstick 67/131 51.2 42.3–60.0 379/397 95.5 92.9–97.3 67/85 78.8 68.6–86.9 379/334 85.6 81.9–88.7
Group 2 (n = 547)
 Embedded test 64/139 46.0 37.6–54.7 393/408 96.3 94.0–97.9 64/79 81.0 70.6–89.0 393/468 84.0 80.3–87.2
 Laboratory 52/139 37.4 29.4–46.0 401/401 98.3 96.5–99.3 52/59 88.1 77.1–95.1 401/488 82.2 78.5–85.5
  1. PPV Positive predictive value, NPV Negative predictive value, UTI Urinary tract infection
  2. Group 1: diaper-embedded test vs. urine dipstick test; Group 2: diaper-embedded test vs. laboratory screening test
  3. a UTI was defined as 1) a positive urine culture, defined as growth of > 105 colony-forming units of the same pathogen per ml in two subsequent clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; 2) growth of > 105 and < 104 colony-forming units of the same pathogen per ml in two subsequent clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; 3) if only one sample was collected, growth of > 105 colony-forming units of the known uropathogen per ml in the clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; or 4) any magnitude of bacterial growth in a urine sample obtained by suprapubic bladder aspiration