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Table 2 Performance of the diaper-embedded urine test leukocytes in the screening of bacterial culture-confirmed UTIa

From: Diaper-embedded urine test device for the screening of urinary tract infections in children: a cohort study

Leukocytes Sensitivity % (95% CI) Specificity % (95% CI) PPV % (95% CI) NPV % (95% CI)
Group 1 (n = 528)
 Embedded test 122/131 93.1 87.4–96.8 256/397 64.4 59.6–69.2 122/263 46.4 40.2–52.6 256/265 96.6 93.7–98.4
 Urine dipstick 125/131 95.4 90.3–98.3 307/397 77.3 72.9–81.4 125/215 58.1 51.2–64.8 307/313 98.1 95.9–99.3
Group 2 (n = 547)
 Embedded test 127/139 91.4 85.4–95.5 260/408 63.7 58.6–68.4 127/275 46.2 40.2–52.3 260/272 95.6 92.4–97.7
 Laboratory 123/139 88.5 82.0–93.3 363/408 89.0 85.5–91.8 123/168 73.2 65.9–79.7 363/379 95.8 93.2–97.6
  1. PPV Positive predictive value, NPV Negative predictive value, UTI Urinary tract infection
  2. Group 1: diaper-embedded test vs. urine dipstick test; Group 2: diaper-embedded test vs. laboratory screening test
  3. a UTI was defined as 1) a positive urine culture, defined as growth of > 105 colony-forming units of the same pathogen per ml in two subsequent clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; 2) growth of > 105 and < 104 colony-forming units of the same pathogen per ml in two subsequent clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; 3) if only one sample was collected, growth of > 105 colony-forming units of the known uropathogen per ml in the clean voided urine or urine collection pad samples; or 4) any magnitude of bacterial growth in a urine sample obtained by suprapubic bladder aspiration