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Table 1 Study population of 565 infants and children with a suspected urinary tract infection

From: Diaper-embedded urine test device for the screening of urinary tract infections in children: a cohort study

Characteristic Population n (%)
Girls Boys All
Total 312 (55.2) 253 (44.8)  
Age (months) mean (SD) 12.4 (14.5) 11.2 (9.8) 11.8 (12.6)
Sample collection methoda
 Urine collection pad 267 (85.6) 219 (86.6) 486 (86.0)
 Suprapubic aspiration 35 (11.2) 21 (8.3) 56 (9,9)
 Clean catch urine 8 (2.6) 12 (4.7) 20 (3.5)
 Catheter 2 (0.6) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.8)
Confirmed UTI 89 (28.5) 54 (21.3) 143 (25.3)
Uropathogensb
Escherichia coli 82 (92.1) 43 (79.6) 125 (87.4)
Klebsiella spp. 1 (1.1) 5 (9.3) 6 (4.2)
Enterobacter spp. 3 (3.4) 4 (7.4) 7 (4.9)
Enterococcus spp. 1 (1.1) 1 (0.7)
Proteus spp. 2 (3.7) 2 (1.4)
Citrobacter spp. 1 (1.1) 1 (0.7)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (1.1) 1 (0.7)
Other culture results
 Negative culture 71 (31,8) 54 (27.1) 125 (29.6)
 Normal flora 129 (57,8) 113 (56.8) 242 (57.3)
 Contaminant growth 23 (10.3) 32 (16.1) 55 (13.0)
  1. UTI Urinary tract infection. Infection was confirmed with bacterial culture as golded standard
  2. a Urine collection pad sample was collected from each child. The sample was classified as pad sample if two consecutive samples were collected with urine collection pad
  3. b The bacterial culture findings of confirmed UTI cases