Skip to main content

Table 1 Percentage of sleep disturbance and the percentage of three YDQ categories

From: Relationship between internet addiction and sleep disturbance in high school students: a cross-sectional study

  n Sleep disturbance YDQ score
Yes p-value ≤2 3–4 ≥5 p-value
Total 5264 50.5%   62.3% 25.6% 12.1%  
Boys 2635 46.0%   67.4% 23.1% 9.4%  
School type    .047     .012
  Public school 2017 45.0%   67.0% 24.2% 8.8%  
  Private school 618 49.5%   68.8% 19.6% 11.7%  
School-commute time (hours/day) .001     .962
  < 0.5 1432 43.1%   67.9% 22.6% 9.6%  
  ≥ 0.5, < 1 947 48.4%   66.8% 23.8% 9.4%  
  ≥ 1 249 54.2%   66.7% 24.1% 9.2%  
School sports or clubs (hours/day) <.001     <.001
  None 757 52.2%   60.2% 26.8% 12.9%  
  < 1 60 53.3%   50.0% 28.3% 21.7%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 204 47.1%   59.8% 26.0% 14.2%  
  ≥ 2 1601 42.7%   72.3% 20.9% 6.8%  
Extracurricular learning (hours/day) .358     .072
  None 454 44.5%   72.7% 17.6% 9.7%  
  < 1 842 45.5%   66.3% 24.8% 8.9%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 864 45.4%   65.2% 24.8% 10.1%  
  ≥ 2 473 49.7%   68.5% 22.4% 9.1%  
Television viewing time (hours/day) .156     .687
  None 243 51.4%   66.7% 23.9% 9.5%  
  < 1 485 46.2%   67.6% 23.3% 9.1%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 1049 44.2%   69.2% 22.3% 8.5%  
  ≥ 2, < 3 398 43.2%   68.1% 22.6% 9.3%  
  ≥ 3, < 5 324 50.3%   63.0% 24.7% 12.3%  
  ≥ 5 122 47.5%   63.1% 25.4% 11.5%  
Skipped meals (times/week) <.001     <.001
  None 1963 41.5%   69.7% 22.5% 7.8%  
  < 2 335 57.6%   62.4% 24.5% 13.1%  
  ≥ 2, < 7 139 56.1%   61.2% 27.3% 11.5%  
  ≥ 7, < 14 78 66.7%   57.7% 20.5% 21.8%  
  ≥ 14 112 64.3%   58.0% 25.9% 16.1%  
Depressed mood <.001     <.001
  Not at all 555 29.0%   82.0% 14.8% 3.2%  
  Not so much 906 39.3%   71.6% 23.5% 4.9%  
  Yes 830 60.0%   59.6% 24.8% 15.5%  
  Often 340 57.9%   51.2% 31.8% 17.1%  
School-life satisfaction   <.001     <.001
  Satisfied 993 34.1%   77.2% 18.8% 3.9%  
  More or less satisfied 1035 47.4%   67.0% 24.8% 8.2%  
  Not really satisfied 413 62.5%   52.5% 27.1% 20.3%  
  Dissatisfied 186 64.5%   50.5% 27.4% 22.0%  
Girls 2629 55.0%   57.1% 28.1% 14.8%  
School type    .034     .975
  Public school 1980 53.8%   57.0% 28.2% 14.8%  
  Private school 649 58.6%   57.5% 27.9% 14.6%  
School-commute time (hours/day) <.001     .369
  < 0.5 1212 52.4%   55.4% 28.8% 15.8%  
  ≥ 0.5, < 1 1092 55.0%   59.1% 26.8% 14.1%  
  ≥ 1 320 65.0%   56.6% 30.0% 13.4%  
School sports or clubs (hours/day) .087     .373
  None 1520 56.3%   55.2% 29.3% 15.5%  
  < 1 70 61.4%   54.3% 28.6% 17.1%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 180 57.8%   60.6% 25.6% 13.9%  
  ≥ 2 842 51.7%   60.0% 26.6% 13.4%  
Extracurricular learning (hours/day) .102     .001
  None 259 61.8%   50.2% 30.1% 19.7%  
  < 1 694 55.3%   53.0% 29.8% 17.1%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 954 53.1%   58.1% 28.7% 13.2%  
  ≥ 2 722 54.6%   62.2% 24.9% 12.9%  
Television viewing time (hours/day) .071     .015
  None 112 66.1%   51.8% 25.9% 22.3%  
  < 1 362 56.4%   58.8% 25.4% 15.7%  
  ≥ 1, < 2 990 53.0%   59.4% 27.2% 13.4%  
  ≥ 2, < 3 515 53.2%   58.4% 29.7% 11.8%  
  ≥ 3, < 5 477 54.7%   54.5% 28.1% 17.4%  
  ≥ 5 158 60.8%   46.8% 34.8% 18.4%  
Skipped meals (times/week) <.001     <.001
  None 1688 48.6%   61.4% 25.8% 12.8%  
  < 2 538 62.6%   51.5% 33.1% 15.4%  
  ≥ 2, < 7 203 72.9%   48.8% 32.0% 19.2%  
  ≥ 7, < 14 100 75.0%   46.0% 29.0% 25.0%  
  ≥ 14 98 64.3%   41.8% 32.7% 25.5%  
Depressed mood    <.001     <.001
  Not at all 310 29.4%   78.4% 18.4% 3.2%  
  Not so much 814 46.1%   65.1% 26.2% 8.7%  
  Yes 1098 64.3%   48.1% 31.9% 20.0%  
  Often 406 67.0%   49.0% 29.3% 21.7%  
School-life satisfaction   <.001     <.001
  Satisfied 948 44.2%   67.0% 24.5% 8.5%  
  More or less satisfied 1163 57.5%   55.1% 30.7% 14.2%  
  Not really satisfied 371 68.5%   43.7% 30.5% 25.9%  
  Dissatisfied 141 71.6%   41.8% 24.8% 33.3%  
  1. Participants with missing data were excluded from the analysis. P-values were calculated using the χ2 test