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Table 2 Characteristics of the infant participants stratified by risk classification, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2018

From: Breastfeeding patterns in cohort infants at a high-risk fetal, neonatal and child referral center in Brazil: a correspondence analysis

Characteristics Total
n = 1003
At-Risk Newborna
n = 407
Healthy Newborn
n = 596
p-value
n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI
Sex 1003          0.006
Female   48.2 (45.0–51.3) 174 42.8 (37.9–47.7) 309 51.8 (47.7–55.9)  
Male   51.8 (48.7–55.0) 233 57.2 (52.3–62.1) 287 48.2 (44.1–52.3)  
Multiple gestation 1003          < 0.001
No   85.1 (82.8–87.3) 297 73.0 (68.4–77.2) 557 93.5 (91.2–95.3)  
Yes   14.9 (12.7–17.2) 110 27.0 (22.8–31.6) 39 6.5 (4.7–8.8)  
Perinatal morbidity 1003          < 0.001
No   58.4 (55.3–61.5) 28 6.9 (4.6–9.8) 558 93.6 (91.4–95.4)  
Yes   41.6 (38.5–44.7) 379 93.1 (90.2–95.4) 38 6.4 (4.6–8.6)  
Maternal age 1000          0.98
20–34 years   68.7 (65.7–71.6) 279 68.6 (63.8–73.0) 408 68.8 (64.9–72.5)  
<  20 years   13.9 (11.8–16.2) 56 13.8 (10.6–17.5) 83 14.0 (11.3–17.1)  
>  35 years   17.4 (15.1–19.9) 72 17.7 (14.1–21.8) 102 17.2 (14.2–20.5)  
Maternal schooling 1000          0.06
Illiterate   11.2 (9.3–13.3) 51 12.5 (9.5–16.1) 61 10.3 (8.0–13.0)  
Elementary school   27.1 (24.4–30.0) 112 27.5 (23.2–32.1) 159 26.8 (23.3–30.6)  
Secondary school   52.3 (49.2–55.4) 196 48.2 (43.2–53.1) 327 55.1 (51.0–59.2)  
Higher education   9.4 (7.7–11.4) 48 11.8 (8.8–15.3) 46 7.8 (5.7–10.2)  
Received orientation on BF in prenatal care 1000          0.001
Yes   71.8 (68.9–74.6) 269 66.1 (61.3–70.7) 449 75.7 (72.1–79.1)  
No   28.2 (25.4–31.1) 138 33.9 (29.3–38.7) 144 24.3 (20.9–27.9)  
Rooming-in 999          < 0.001
Yes   70.8 (67.8–73.6) 137 33.8 (29.2–38.7) 570 96.0 (94.0–97.4)  
No   29.2 (26.4–32.2) 268 66.2 (61.3–70.8) 24 4.0 (2.6–6.0)  
Skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room 997          < 0.001
Yes   46.5 (43.4–49.7) 97 23.9 (19.8–28.3) 367 62.1 (58.0–66.0)  
No   53.5 (50.3–56.6) 309 76.1 (71.7–80.2) 224 37.9 (34.0–42.0)  
Morbidity during pregnancy 1003          0.002
No   51.6 (48.5–54.8) 186 45.7 (40.8–50.7) 332 55.7 (51.6–59.7)  
Yes   48.4 (45.2–51.5) 221 54.3 (49.3–59.2) 264 44.3 (40.3–48.4)  
BF desire after birth 1002          0.63
Strong desire   93.0 (91.3–94.5) 381 93.6 (90.8–95.8) 551 92.6 (90.2–94.6)  
Weak desire   7.0 (5.5–8.7) 26 6.4 (4.2–9.2) 44 7.4 (5.4–9.8)  
Delivery type 1003          < 0.001
Cesarean   58.6 (55.5–61.7) 301 74.0 (69.4–78.2) 287 48.2 (44.1–52.3)  
Transpelvian   41.4 (38.3–44.5) 106 26.0 (21.8–30.6) 309 51.8 (47.7–55.9)  
Place of hospitalization of newborn 1002          < 0.001
Maternal Care   68.4 (65.4–71.2) 90 22.1 (18.2–26.5) 595 100. 0 (99.4–100.0)  
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit   31.6 (28.8–34.6) 317 77.9 (73.5–81.8) 0 0.0 (0.0–0.6)  
Difficulty BF 1003          < 0.001
No   40.0 (36.9–43.1) 113 27.8 (23.5–32.4) 288 48.3 (44.2–52.4)  
Yes   60.0 (56.9–63.1) 294 72.2 (67.6–76.5) 308 51.7 (47.6–55.8)  
NB used a pacifier during hospitalization 999          < 0.001
No   85.7 (83.4–87.8) 273 67.6 (62.8–72.1) 583 98.0 (96.5–99.0)  
Yes   14.3 (12.2–16.6) 131 32.4 (27.9–37.2) 12 2.0 (1.0–3.5)  
NB received Pasteurized Donated Human Milk 1003          < 0.001
No   44.3 (41.2–47.4) 77 18.9 (15.2–23.1) 367 61.6 (57.5–65.5)  
Yes   55.7 (52.6–58.8) 330 81.1 (76.9–84.8) 229 38.4 (34.5–42.5)  
NB received formula 1003          < 0.001
No   64.7 (61.7–67.7) 183 45.0 (40.1–49.9) 466 78.2 (74.7–81.4)  
Yes   35.3 (32.3–38.3) 224 55.0 (50.1–59.9) 130 21.8 (18.6–25.3)  
NB cup fed during hospitalization 1003          0.01
No   38.8 (35.8–41.9) 138 33.9 (29.3–38.7) 251 42.1 (38.1–46.2)  
Yes   61.2 (58.1–64.2) 269 66.1 (61.3–70.7) 345 57.9 (53.8–61.9)  
NB bottle fed during hospitalization 1003          < 0.001
No   84.5 (82.2–86.7) 254 62.4 (57.5–67.1) 594 99.7 (98.8–100.0)  
Yes   15.5 (13.3–17.8) 153 37.6 (32.9–42.5) 2 0.3 (0.0–1.2)  
Exposure to a combination of four BFHI steps 1003          < 0.001
Yes   29.6 (26.8–32.5) 36 8.8 (6.3–12.0) 261 43.8 (39.8–47.9)  
No   70.4 (67.5–73.2) 371 91.2 (88.0–93.7) 335 56.2 (52.1–60.2)  
Exposure to a combination of two BFHI steps 1003          < 0.001
Yes   53.3 (50.2–56.5) 104 25.6 (21.4–30.1) 431 72.3 (68.5–75.9)  
No   46.7 (43.5–49.8) 303 74.4 (69.9–78.6) 165 27.7 (24.1–31.5)  
Feeding practice at hospital discharge 983          < 0.001
EBF   65.2 (62.1–68.2) 177 45.7 (40.7–50.8) 464 77.9 (74.3–81.1)  
EBF Cessation   34.8 (31.8–37.9) 210 54.3 (49.2–59.3) 132 22.1 (18.9–25.7)  
  1. CI Confidence interval
  2. BF Breastfeeding
  3. BFHI Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative
  4. EBF Exclusive Breastfeeding
  5. NB Newborn
  6. aAt-risk infants: at least one positive characteristic: ‘hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit’, ‘prematurity’, ‘low birth weight (< 2500 g)’, ‘Apgar in the fifth minute’, ‘presence of one perinatal morbidity’, ‘presence of one surgical morbidity’ and ‘genetic syndrome