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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 1003 child participants, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2018

From: Breastfeeding patterns in cohort infants at a high-risk fetal, neonatal and child referral center in Brazil: a correspondence analysis

Characteristics n % 95% CI
Child-related factors
Sex
 Female 483 48.2 45.0–51.3
 Male 520 51.8 48.6–54.9
Multiple gestation
 No 854 85.1 82.7–87.2
 Yes 149 14.9 12.7–17.2
Gestational age
 Higher or equal to 37 weeks 777 77.5 74.7–80.0
 Less than 37 weeks 226 22.5 19.9–25.2
Birth weight
 Higher than 2500 g 806 80.4 77.7–82.7
 Between 1500 g and 2500 g 158 15.8 13.5–18.1
 Lower than 1500 g 39 3.9 2.7–5.2
Surgical morbiditya
 No 873 87.0 84.8–89.0
 Yes 130 13.0 10.9–15.1
Perinatal morbidityb
 No 589 58.7 55.6–61.7
 Yes 414 41.3 38.2–44.3
Genetic syndrome
 No 992 98.9 98.0–99.4
 Yes 11 1.1 0.5–1.9
Mother-related factors
Maternal schooling
 Illiterate / Incomplete elementary school 112 11.2 9.2–13.2
 Complete elementary school / Incomplete secondary school 271 27.1 24.2–29.8
 Complete secondary School / Incomplete higher education 523 52.3 48.9–55.2
 Complete higher education 94 9.4 7.6–11.3
Parity
Primiparous 504 50.6 47.1–53.3
Multiparous 493 49.4 46.0–52.2
Number of prenatal care visits
  > 6 visits 893 89.4 86.9–90.9
  < 6 visits 106 10.6 8.7–12.6
Tobacco use during pregnancy
 No 914 91.8 89.1–92.9
 Yes 82 8.2 6.5–10.0
Morbidity during pregnancy
 No 518 51.6 48.4–54.7
 Yes 485 48.4 45.2–51.5
Household income
 More than 2 MWs 498 60.5 46.5–52.7
 Less than 2 MWs 325 39.5 29.5–35.4
Mothers working outside the home
 No 545 54.8 51.1–57.4
 Yes 449 45.2 41.6–47.9
Mothers that study
 No 879 88.1 85.4–89.6
 Yes 119 11.9 9.9–14.0
Maternity leavec
 Yes 445 44.6 41.2–47.5
 No 553 55.4 51.9–58.2
Return to work
 Six months or more 56 5.6 4.2--7.1
 Between four and five months 267 26.7 23.9–29.4
 Less than four months 93 9.3 7.5–11.2
 Unemployed 512 51.2 47.9–54.1
 Did not answer 72 7.2 5.6–8.9
Living with a partner
 No 174 17.4 15.0–19.8
 Yes 825 82.6 79.7–84.5
Breastfeeding desire after birth
 Extreme desire to breastfeed 932 93.0 91.1–94.4
 Sometimes prefers a bottle with formula 22 2.2 1.3–3.3
 Breastfeeding desire varies 38 3.8 2.6–5.1
 Always believes that a bottle with formula is better 10 1.0 0.4–1.8
Health service-related factors
Skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room
 Yes 464 46.5 43.1–49.4
 No 533 53.5 49.9–56.2
Place of hospitalization of newborn
 Rooming-in 674 67.3 64.1–70.1
 Neosurgical Intensive Care Unit 55 5.5 4.1–7.0
 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 273 27.2 24.4–30.0
Received orientation on breastfeeding in prenatal care
 Yes 718 71.8 68.6–74.3
 No 282 28.2 25.3–31.0
Delivery type
 Transpelvian 415 41.4 38.3–44.4
 Cesarean 588 58.6 55.5–61.9
Breastfeeding
Feeding at hospital discharge
 Exclusive breastfeeding 639 65.2 62.1–68.2
 Supplemented breastfeeding 272 27.5 24.3–29.9
 Bottle feeding 71 7.3 5.5–8.8
NB received Pasteurized Donated Human Milk
 No 444 44.3 41.1–47.4
 Yes 559 55.7 52.5–58.8
NB cup fed during hospitalization
 No 389 38.8 35.7–41.8
 Yes 614 61.2 58.1–64.2
NB bottle fed during hospitalization
 No 848 84.5 82.1–86.7
 Yes 155 15.5 13.2–17.8
NB used a pacifier during hospitalization
 No 856 85.7 83.0–87.4
 Yes 143 14.3 12.1–16.5
  1. NB newborn, MW minimum wage (Brazilian monthly minimum wage)
  2. a defined by at least one perinatal morbidity
  3. b defined by at least one surgical anomaly
  4. c the absence of maternity leave included diverse social conditions: no maternity leave and unemployed