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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the final analysis

From: Congenital heart disease diagnosed with echocardiogram in newborns with asymptomatic cardiac murmurs: a systematic review

Sources Country Study design Study period Clinical settings Participants (n) Sex (M/F) Mean age (days)
Ainsworth et al. 1999, [28] United Kingdom (Newcastle upon Tyne) Prospective cohort study Jan. 1995–Dec. 1996 Nursery 46 NP NP
Rein et al. 2000, [29] Israel (Jerusalem) Retrospective cohort study Jan. 1994–Dec. 1996 Nursery 170 85:85 NP
Azhar et al. 2006, [24] Canada (Ontario/Ottawa) Prospective cross-sectional study Jul. 1997–Jun. 1998 NICU 75 NP NP
Mackie et al. 2009, [30] Canada (Quebec/ Montreal) Prospective cross-sectional study Oct. 2004–Jul. 2006 Outpatient 201 95:106 12
Gokmen et al. 2009, [25] Turkey (Konya) Prospective cross-sectional study NP
6 months
Nursery 53 NP NP
Mirzarahimi et al. 2011, [31] Iran (Ardabil) Cross-sectional study Sept. 2006–Sept. 2007 Nursery
NICU
91 NP NP
Singh et al. 2012, [32] United Kingdom (Birmingham) Retrospective cohort study Jan. 2008–Dec. 2010 Nursery 205 NP 2
Al-Ammouri et al. 2016, [33] Jordan (Amman) Retrospective cohort study Aug. 2007–Jun. 2014 Nursery 309 167:142 NP
Minocha et al. 2018, [26] United States (Florida/Miami) Retrospective cohort study Jan. 2013–Dec. 2016 Nursery 422 NP NP
Fenster et al. 2018, [34] United States (Wisconsin/Madison) Retrospective cohort study Jan. 2008–Dec. 2015 Nursery 354 NP 2
Ceresnak et al. 2007, [35] United States (New York) Case report NP Nursery 1 1 male 2
Paech et al. 2013, [36] Germany (Leipzig) Case report NP NICU 1 NP NP
  1. Abbreviations: NP, not provided; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; M, male; F, female