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Table 2 Univariate analysis of associated factors of NE among children ages 5–12 years

From: Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among children ages 5–12 years in Xi’an, China: a cross-sectional study

Factors Total numberNEnon-NEPrevalence(%)χ2P
Delivery modeNatural labor357612534513.504.9920.025
Caesarean birth299213728554.58
Duration of using DDNever use994199751.91131.360< 0.001**
0-1 year25325924732.33
> 1 but ≤2 years249212223704.90
> 2 but ≤3 years454324227.05
> 3 but ≤4 years67165123.88
> 4 years29141548.28
Toilet training onset time< 6 months of age23687122973.0020.940< 0.001**
6-12 months of age255510724484.19
13-18 months of age998379613.71
> 18 months of age14981415.37
never training498394597.83
Living habits during the dayDrinking sugary beverages971529195.3616.3040.001
Eating sweets16457415714.50
drinking low amounts of plain water(< 500 ml)15056814374.52
None of the above24476823792.78
Drinking plain water and eating fruits before bedNo24297923503.255.4620.019
Yes413918339564.42
The time to fall asleepBefore 21:0011142410902.1514.757< 0.001**
21:00–23:00535423051244.30
After 23:001008928.00
Awakening from sleepEasy21226520573.067.0170.008
Difficult444619742494.43
Sleep disordersYes177310616675.9825.100< 0.001
No479515646393.25
Playing games before bedNo438416142233.673.8840.049**
Sometimes21039620074.56
Often815766.17
Academic performanceGood428914941403.4717.053< 0.001**
General21539620574.46
Poor1261710913.49
Family history of NENo49397748621.56390.83< 0.001
Not sure11309510358.41
Yes4999040918.04
  1. Note: NE = nocturnal enuresis; DD = disposable diaper. ** P value for Chi-squared test for trend, and other P value for Chi-squared test