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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Klotho and fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 serum concentrations in children and adolescents with normal body weight and obesity and their associations with metabolic parameters

VariableNormal weight (N = 48)
median (25–75%)
Overweight (N = 34)
median (25–75%)
Obesity (N = 92)
median (25–75%)
p-value
Age [years]13.6 (10.1 to 15.7)12.0 (9.9 to 15.9)12.0 (9.7 to 14.3)0.3812
Tanner score2 (2 to 4)2 (1 to 4)2 (2 to 4)0.8710
BMI [kg/m^2]18,4 (16.6 to 20.3)24.1 (22.4 to 25.7)27.4 (25.9 to 30.6)N/A
BMI z-score−0.1 (− 0.6 to 0.4)1.5 (1.3 to 1.6)2.1 (1.8 to 2.3)N/A
BMI percentile45.8 (26.4 to 66.0)92.7 (90.5 to 94.3)98.0 (96.7 to 99.0)N/A
Body fat [%]23.9 (20.1 to 27.3)37.7 (32.9 to 47.0)45.2 (39.2 to 52.9)< 0.00011
Fasting glycaemia [mg/dl]80 (76 to 83.5)79 (75 to 85)80 (77 to 84.5)0.6825
Fasting insulinaemia [μU/ml]9.1 (5.7 to 13.4)12 (10.8 to 16.2)15.9 (9.9 to 25.2)0.00052
HOMA-IR1.8 (1.1 to 2.7)2.5 (2.1 to 3.2)3.2 (2.1 to 5.1)< 0.00013
TC [mg/dl]151.5 (138.0 to 174.0)161.5 (148.0 to 183.0)153.0 (135.0 to 175.0)0.1760
HDL-C [mg/dl]53.0 (49.0 to 59.5)47.5 (42.0 to 54.0)44.0 (38.0 to 51.0)< 0.00014
LDL-C [mg/dl]79.0 (69.5 to 97.5)90.5 (74.0 to 102.0)89.0 (75.0 to 106.5)0.1721
TGs [mg/dl]77.5 (55.5 to 95.5)103.0 (62.0 to 135.0)104.5 (79.5 to 128.0)0.00075
Klotho [pg/ml]116.6 (38.5 to 163.9)131.3 (78.0 to 313.0)168.6 (90.2 to 375.9)0.03346
FGF19 [pg/ml]232.8 (126.0 to 340.5)167.6 (118.2 to 276.6)160.6 (87.5 to 260.2)0.0563
FGF21 [pg/ml]82.4 (31.6 to 128.2)87.3 (47.1 to 181.4)89.3 (43.3 to 193.2)0.3783
  1. N number of subjects, N/A not applicable, BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TGs triglycerides, FGF19 fibroblast growth factor 19, FGF21 fibroblast growth factor 21
  2. 1 - Post-hoc comparisons significant between normal weight and overweight (p < 0.0001), normal weight and obesity (p < 0.0001), and overweight and obesity (p = 0.0030) groups
  3. 2 - Post-hoc comparisons significant between normal weight and overweight (p = 0.0261) and normal weight and obesity (p < 0.0001)
  4. 3 - Post-hoc comparisons significant between normal weight and obesity (p < 0.0001) and normal weight and overweight (p = 0.0435)
  5. 4 - Post-hoc comparison significant only between normal weight and obesity (p < 0.0001)
  6. 5 - Post-hoc comparison significant only between normal weight and obesity (p = 0.0005)
  7. 6 - Post-hoc comparison significant only between normal weight and obesity (p = 0.0282)