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Table 3 Multinomial multivariate regression models for IDA and non-IDA

From: Iron deficiency anaemia among 6-to-36-month children from northern Angola

Independent variables   Non anemic IDA p Non-IDA p
  OR (IC95%) OR (IC95%)
Total population (1)
 Age < 6 months 1 Ref   Ref  
6–23 months   7.4 (2.87, 19.11) < 0.001 0.7 (0.43, 1.15) 0.166
24–36 months   2.0 (0.73, 5.53) 0.180 0.5 (0.27, 0.80) 0.006
 Children’s gender Female 1 Ref   Ref  
Male   2.0 (1.32, 2.91) 0.001 1.3 (0.87, 1.81) 0.216
 Zinc Normal 1 Ref   Ref  
Deficiency   1.6 (0.67, 3.61) 0.306 3.2 (1.64, 6.25) 0.001
Overload   0.8 (0.47, 1.26) 0.300 0.6 (0.36, 0.96) 0.033
P. falciparum No 1 Ref   Ref  
Yes   1.3 (0.26, 6.81) 0.733 3.1 (1.05, 9.42) 0.041
 Inflammation No 1 Ref   Ref  
Malarial Inflammation   3.8 (0.56, 25.70) 0.174 1.8 (0.44, 7.36) 0.415
Non-malarial Inflammation   2.4 (1.62, 3.65) < 0.001 1.3 (0.90, 1.94) 0.157
 Sickle cell (HBB genotype) AA 1 Ref   Ref  
AS   1.00 (0.59, 1.55) 0.853 1.6 (1.03, 2.35) 0.035
SS   1.2 (0.10, 13.54) 0.904 16.6 (3.56, 77.04) < 0.001
Children under 6 month (2)
 Age Continuous variable 1 1.3 (1.02, 1.57) 0.031
Normal 1 Ref  
 Zinc Deficiency   1.1 (0.20, 5.85) 0.927
Overload   0.3 (0.12, 0.73) 0.008
Children 6 to 23 months (3)
 Gender Female 1     
Male   2.1 (1.34, 3.27) 0.001 1.3 (0.78, 2.10) 0.321
 Continued breastfeeding No 1     
Yes   1.9 (1.11, 3.13) 0.019 1.6 (0.92, 2.90) 0.095
 Zinc Normal 1     
Deficiency   1.4 (0.42, 4.48) 0.604 4.4 (1.55, 12.28) 0.005
Overload   0.8 (0.44, 1.30) 0.307 0.7 (0.35, 1.27) 0.221
 Inflammation No 1     
Malarial Inflammation   2.3 (0.43, 11.95) 0.331 9.1 (2.34, 35.71) 0.001
Non-malarial Inflammation   2.2 (1.42, 3.47) < 0.001 1.5 (0.90, 2.48) 0.119
Children 24 to 36 months (4)
 Age Continuous variable 1 0.9 (0.77, 0.98) 0.020 1.0 (0.955, 1.13) 0.408
 Zinc Normal 1     
Deficiency   1.4 (0.38, 5.28) 0.609 3.6 (1.41, 9.09) 0.007
Overload   1.0 (0.26, 4.14) 0.960 0.7 (0.23, 2.35) 0.605
 Stunting Normal 1     
Moderate to severe   2.6 (1.09, 6.20) 0.031 1.2 (0.60, 2.23) 0.675
 Inflammation No      
Malarial Inflammation 1 18.2 (3.55, 92.76) < 0.001 2.3 (0.54, 9.94) 0.262
Non-malarial Inflammation   4.0 (1.45, 11.01) 0.007 0.4 (0.21, 0.90) 0.024
  1. Only variables with a significance level of 10% (p < 0.10) were included as independent variables in a multivariate multinomial model [1]. Variables excluded from the model (p > 0.05): educational level of the caregiver, breeding or hunting animals, main source of drinking and bath water and being infected with at least one intestinal or urogenital parasite. Model adjustment: Pearson: χ2(170) = 162.9, p = 0.638; Deviance: χ2(170) = 169.9, p = 0.488; R2 Nagelkerke = 0.208 [2]. Variables excluded from the model (p > 0.05): Inflammation (Non-malarial inflammation). Model adjustment: Pearson: χ2(22) = 43.1, p = 0.500; Deviance: χ2(22) = 48.6, p = 0.100; R2 Nagelkerke = 13.5% [3]. Variables excluded from the model (p > 0.05): N° of children, Minimum Dietary Diversity (Non-continued breastfeed), main water drinking source, n° of children < 5 years, having at least one intestinal/urogenital parasite, sickle cell, P. falciparum. Model adjustment: Pearson: χ2(40) = 27.3, p = 0.938; Deviance: χ2(40) = 31.0, p = 0.845; R2 Nagelkerke = 13.0% [4]. Variables excluded from the model (p > 0.05): Number of residents, latrine ownership, P. falciparum, Food frequency. Model adjustment: Pearson: χ2(176) = 170.5, p = 0.604; Deviance: χ2(176) = 167.0, p = 0.675; R2 Nagelkerke = 20.3%