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Table 1 Characterisation of study children: demographics, nutritional status, Infant and Young Child Feeding practices, infections and infection preventive practices and genetic features

From: Iron deficiency anaemia among 6-to-36-month children from northern Angola

Variables Categories n N Estimated proportion (95% CI)
Demographic characteristic of children
 Age (in months) < 6 months 155 948 16.4 (14.1–18.8)
6–23 months 520 948 54.9 (51.7–58)
24–36 months 273 948 28.8 (26–31.8)
 Gender Female 459 948 48.4 (45.2–51.6)
Male 489 948 51.6 (48.4–54.8)
Nutritional status and feeding practices
 Anaemia No 527 912 57.8 (54.6–61)
IDA 177 912 19.4 (17–22.1)
Non-IDA 208 912 22.8 (20.2–25.6)
 Zinc deficiency Yes 58 687 8.4 (6.6–10.8)
 Zinc overload Yes 165 794 20.8 (18.1–23.7)
 Wasting Moderate to severe 93 942 9.9 (8.1–11.9)
 Stunting Moderate to severe 252 943 26.7 (24–29.6)
 Underweight Moderate to severe 191 943 20.3 (17.8–22.9)
 Exclusive breastfeeding (< 6 months) Yesa 74 150 49.3 (41.4–57.3)
 Continued breastfeeding (6 to 36 months) Yesa 413 786 52.5 (49–56)
 Minimum Dietary Diversity (6 to 36 months) Yesa 165 726 22.7 (19.8–25.9)
 Non-haeme Iron rich foods (6 to 36 months) Yesa 256 726 35.3 (31.9–38.8)
 Haeme Iron rich foods (6 to 36 months) Yesa 550 726 75.8 (72.5–78.7)
 Feeding frequency (6 to 36 months) 0–1 times 73 703 10.4 (8.3–12.9)
2–3 times 389 703 55.3 (51.6–59)
> = 4 times 241 703 34.3 (30.9–37.9)
Infections and infection preventive practices
P. falciparum Yes 49 946 5.2 (3.9–6.8)
 At least one intestinal/urogenital parasite Yes 127 833 15.2 (13–17.8)
A. Lumbricoides Yes 30 787 3.8 (2.7–5.4)
G. lamblia Yes 59 783 7.5 (5.9–9.6)
S. haematobium Yes 36 570 6.3 (4.6–8.6)
 Diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks Yesa 386 938 41.2 (38–44.3)
 Inflammation (CRP) No 465 850 54.7 (51.3–58)
Malarial inflammation 28 850 3.3 (2.3–4.7)
Non-malarial inflammation 357 850 42 (38.7–45.3)
 Sleeping under the bednet in the previous night Yes 391 913 42.8 (39.7–46.1)
 Treated drinking water Yes 685 932 73.5 (70.6–76.2)
 Main source of drinking water Unsafe (river, lagoon) 467 927 50.4 (47.2–53.6)
Safe (piped, fountain) 460 927 49.6 (46.4–52.8)
 Main source of water for bath Unsafe (river, lagoon) 502 796 63.1 (59.7–66.3)
Safe (piped, fountain) 294 796 36.9 (33.7–40.3)
 Place for faecal disposal Unsafe (open sky) 327 935 35 (32–38.1)
Safe (latrine or buried) 608 935 65 (61.9–68)
 Wearing shoes at evaluation Yes 589 835 70.5 (67.4–73.5)
Genetic features
 G6PD genotype of females B/B, A/A, B/A 264 459 57.5 (53–62)
B/A-, A/A-, A−/A- 195 459 42.5 (38–47)
 G6PD genotype of males B, A 271 479 56.6 (52.1–60.9)
A- 208 479 43.4 (39.1–47.9)
 Sickle cell (HBB genotype) AA 629 848 74.2 (71.1–77)
AS 203 848 23.9 (21.2–26.9)
SS 16 848 1.9 (1.2–3)
  1. a Definition is described in Methods