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Table 6 Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for survival

From: Radiation therapy is an important factor to improve survival in pediatric patients with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma by enhancing local control: a historical cohort study from a single center

Risk FactorsAll PatientsPatients with events
5-y OSp5-y EFSp3-y OSp
Age at diagnosis
  ≤ 1 y or ≥ 10 ys80.9% 49.6% 60.0% 
 >1–9 ys66.1%0.61748.4%0.80948.9%0.633
Site of origin
 Parameningeal56.6% 49.0% 39.3 
 Non-Parameningeal81.9%0.20446.6%0.90365.60.094
Tumor size
  ≤ 5 cm83.5% 56.0% 79.4% 
 >5 cm40.3%< 0.00130.1%0.035*10.4%< 0.001
Histologic subtype
 Embryonal74.6% 51.8% 35.8%
(5-y OS)
 
 Alveolar65.5%0.17246.9%0.33936.4%
(5-y OS)
0.203
Primary tumor invasiveness
 T195% 49.5% 88.9% 
 T251.4%0.01350.0%0.58329.6%0.006
Regional nodal involvement
 N073.6% 51.4% 60.6% 
 N167.8%0.33040.8%0.49842.3%0.481
Metastasis
 M075.7% 51.2% 62.0% 
 M122.2% (3-y OS)< 0.00125.0% (15-m EFS)0.0970.0%0.005
Surgical-pathologic group
 Group II100% 62.5% 100% 
 Group III66.8% 48.3% 55.6% 
 Group IV22.2% (3-y OS)0.001#25.0% (15-m EFS)0.1980.0%0.007#
Initial RT
 Yes80.3% 63.9% 35.8% 
 No49.7%0.00321.9%
(20-m EFS)
< 0.00136.4%0.178
Salvage RT
 Yes  66.0% 
 No31.2%0.033
  1. # Pairwise comparison (Bonferroni adjustment: p < 0.0167 is considered statistically significant)
  2. 5-year OS of all patients: Group II vs Group III (p = 0.098), Group II vs Group IV (p = 0.003), Group III vs Group IV (p = 0.003)
  3. 3-year OS of patients with events (disease progress and relapse): Group II vs Group III (p = 0.127), Group II vs Group IV (p = 0.018), Group III vs Group IV (p = 0.014)
  4. * Breslow test results