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Table 3 Demographic, clinical and laboratory factors associated with unfavorable outcome following viral CNS infection by univariate analysis

From: Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants < 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators’ Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

FactorsUnfavorable Outcome N = 12Favorable outcome N = 98P-Valuea
Age at onset (d), median (IQR)9 (5.5–18.5)25 (14–33)0.003*
History of seizure at onset or during treatment, n (%)7/12 (58)2/98 (2)< 0.001*
Abnormal imaging, n (%)7/11 (64)4/22 (18)0.02
Meningoencephalitis, n (%)8/12 (67)6/98 (6)< 0.001*
aIntensive care unit admission, n (%)7/11 (64)9/95 (9)< 0.001*
Underlying virus, n (%)
 HSV4/12 (33)3/98 (3)0.002*
 HSV11/12 (8)2/98 (2)0.29
 HSV23/12 (25)1/98 (1)0.004
 EV8/12(67)95/98 (97)0.002
CSF white blood cell count (× 106/L)b, median (IQR)104 (27.5–762)147 (11–358)0.75
CSF protein (g/L)b, median (IQR)1.0 (0.64–1.27)0.74 (0.56–0.95)0.12
bCSF glucose (mmol/L), median (IQR)2.1 (2.0–2.45)2.4 (2.2–2.75)0.03
Extra-central nervous system disease, n (%)5/12 (42)8/99 (8)0.005
  1. Legend: CSF cerebrospinal fluid, HSV herpes simplex virus
  2. *These variables remained significant at a p value < 0.004 after Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons
  3. aFor comparison of proportions, Fishers exact test (2-sided) was used; for comparison of medians, Mann-Whitney test was used
  4. bThe presence of one of more of parameters suggestive of bacterial meningitis (cell count > 1000 × 106/L, Glucose < 2.0 mmol/L and CSF Protein > 1.0 g/L) in infants with EV or HSV infection were not associated with unfavorable outcome