Skip to main content

Table 1 Basic characteristics of HIV-positive women included in the analysis, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2003–2015

From: Postpartum vitamin A supplementation for HIV-positive women is not associated with mortality and morbidity of their breastfed infants: evidence from multiple national surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

Variables (n = 838)Vitamin A supplementedBoth
(n = 838)
P-value
Yes (n = 309)No (n = 529)
Freq%Freq%Freq%
Sub-Saharan Africa Region
 Eastern103.4529.9637.5< 0.001*
 Southern23274.835767.458870.2
 Western5718.58616.214317.0
 Central103.3356.5455.3
Sex of the household head
 Male19362.535066.154364.80.279
 Female11637.517933.929535.2
Household wealth index
 Poorest or poorer12339.620638.932839.10.755
 Middle5919.111221.217120.4
 Richer or richest12841.321140.033940.5
Maternal age (years)
 15–2410533.916230.626731.80.611
 25–3415750.728253.243852.3
 35 or above4815.48616.213315.9
Marital status
 Never in union5417.47213.612615.00.388
 Married/living with partner21770.239875.261573.4
 Widowed113.5183.4293.5
 Divorced or separated288.9417.8698.2
Place of residence
 Urban11737.918434.930236.00.380
 Rural19262.134465.153764.0
Maternal education
 No formal education5317.27514.212815.30.469
 Primary education13443.422943.436443.4
 Secondary or higher education12239.522442.434741.3
Number of children under the age of 5 years
 0175.4489.0657.70.108
 112139.018234.430336.1
 2 or more17255.529956.647156.2
Maternal body-mass-index (kg/m2)
  < 18.5227.3315.9536.40.407
 18–5-24.920064.836969.856967.9
 25 or above8025.812223.120224.1
 Missing72.271.3141.6
Sex of the child
 Boy15851.223945.139747.40.096
 Girl15148.829054.944152.6
Age of the index child (months) (n = 737)×
 0–16121.615634.121729.40.001*
 2–311239.613930.625134.0
 4–510938.716135.327036.6
Birth weight as reported by the mother
  < 2.5 kg3611.5326.0688.00.001*
 2.5–3.9 kg18860.929054.847857.1
 4.0 kg or above124.0264.9384.6
 Not weighted at birth or don’t know7323.618134.325430.3
Drinking water source
 Improved22171.337270.459370.70.766
 Unimproved8928.715729.624629.3
Sanitation facility
 Improved14427.39931.924329.00.146
 Unimproved38572.721168.159571.0
Place of delivery
 Home7123.119136.126231.3< 0.001*
 Health facility23876.933863.957668.7
Any postnatal check-up by health professional
 No15048.439173.854064.4< 0.001*
 Yes16051.613826.229835.6
Child ever vaccinated (n = 737)×
 No3511.411922.415420.9< 0.001*
 Yes24679.633763.858379.1
Frequency of watching TV
 Not at all18860.935467.054364.70.181
 Less than once a week3511.3468.6819.6
 At least once a week8627.712924.421525.6
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all11035.616531.227532.80.409
 Less than once a week4915.88616.313516.1
 At least once a week15048.627852.542851.1
× excluding deceased infants