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Table 4 Comparison the factors related to post-operative malnutrition

From: Risk factors of malnutrition in Chinese children with congenital heart defect

FactorsNormal nutrition (n = 677)Malnutrition (n = 22)P
Age (years), median (range)6 (3–9)5 (3–8)0.63
Male, n (%)384 (56.7)13 (59.1)0.82
Pre-op WAZ−2.5 ± 0.8−2.2 ± 0.90.13
Pre-op HAZ−2.6 ± 1.0−2.2 ± 0.70.09
Pre-op WHZ−2.6 ± 1.1−2.6 ± 1.20.83
Anatomy of the ventricles, n (%)  0.373
 Single ventricle56 (8.7)3 (13.6) 
 Double ventricles621 (91.3)19 (86.4) 
Surgery, n (%)  0.001
 Radical647 (95.6)20 (90.9) 
 Palliative30 (4.4)2 (9.1) 
Re-operation, n (%)36 (5.3)5 (22.7)< 0.001
Residue anatomy, n (%)7 (1.0)11 (50)< 0.001
High family incomea, n (%)77 (11.4)4 (18.1)0.326
High education level of parentsb, n (%)90 (13.2)2 (9.1)< 0.001
Residence, n (%)  < 0.001
 Suburb34 (5.0)5 (22.7) 
 Urban643 (95.0)17 (77.3) 
Parents’ heigt (cm)167 ± 3.7166 ± 3.20.09
Long-term oral diureticsc, n (%)21 (3.1)11 (50)0.04
Ross classification of heart function, n (%)  < 0.001
 Ross-1568 (83.9)4 (18.2) 
 Ross-268 (10.0)8 (36.4) 
 Ross-317 (2.5)5 (22.7) 
 Ross-424 (3.5)5 (22.7) 
Cyanotic heart disease, n (%)34 (5.0)2 (9.1)0.395
  1. WAZ, weight for age Z score, HAZ height for age Z score, WHZ weight for height Z score
  2. a. High family income was defined as the income higher than the average of local income
  3. b. High education level of parents was defined as a bachelor or above in one of the parents
  4. c. Long-term oral diuretics was defined as more than 1 year of oral diuretics treatment