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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects

From: Factors associated with early childhood stunted growth in a 2012–2015 birth cohort monitored in the rural Msambweni area of coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsTotal Cohort (n = 244 (100%))Linear Growth at Study Endpointp-value
Normal
(n = 184 (75%))
Stunted
(n = 60 (25%))
Age, mo - mean ± SD20.51 ± 7.0120.24 ± 7.1021.32 ± 6.710.30a
Gender - n (%)
 Male101 (41.39)76 (41.30)25 (41.67)1.00c
 Female143 (58.61)108 (58.70)35 (58.33)1.00c
Maternal Pregnancy History - mean ± SD 
 Age at first Pregnancy20.18 ± 3.8120.27 ± 3.4419.89 ± 4.830.52a
 Gravida4.14 ± 2.444.05 ± 2.314.42 ± 2.810.31a
 Parity3.16 ± 1.943.07 ± 1.693.45 ± 2.550.18a
 Additional Pregnancyd - n (%)12 (4.92)8 (4.35)4 (6.67)0.71b
Maternal Infection Burden during Pregnancy - n (%)
 Prenatal    
  None65 (26.64)49 (26.63)16 (26.67)1.00c
  1 Infection91 (37.29)65 (35.33)26 (43.33)0.34c
  2 Infections63 (25.82)49 (26.63)14 (23.33)0.74c
  3+ Infections25 (10.25)21 (11.41)4 (6.67)0.42b
 At Delivery
  None142 (58.20)109 (59.24)33 (55.00)0.67c
  1 Infection74 (30.33)55 (29.89)19 (31.67)0.92c
  2 Infections24 (9.83)19 (10.33)5 (8.33)0.84b
  3+ Infections4 (1.64)1 (0.54)3 (5.00)0.08b
Birth weight, g – mean ± SD3007 ± 4633081 ± 4352782 ± 475< 0.001a
Low Birth Weight (< 2500 g)26 (10.66)14 (7.61)12 (20.00)0.01c
Other Nutritional Proxies - n (%)
 Underweight (WAZ < -2)17 (6.97)5 (2.72)12 (20.00)< 0.001c
 Wasted (WHZ < -2)11 (4.51)6 (3.26)5 (8.33)0.20c
Child Infection Burden - n (%)
 Malaria   0.02b
  0 Times209 (85.65)162 (88.04)47 (78.33) 
  1 Time26 (10.66)14 (7.61)12 (20.00) 
  2+ Times9 (3.69)8 (4.35)1 (1.67) 
 Hookworm   0.11b
  0 Times217 (88.93)168 (91.30)49 (81.67) 
  1 Time23 (9.43)14 (7.61)9 (15.00) 
  2+ Times4 (1.64)2 (1.09)2 (3.33) 
Trichuris   0.26b
  0 Times233 (95.49)178 (96.74)55 (91.67) 
  1 Time9 (3.69)5 (2.72)4 (6.67) 
  2+ Times2 (0.82)1 (0.54)1 (1.67) 
Ascaris   0.07b
  0 Times235 (96.31)180 (97.83)55 (91.67) 
  1 Time9 (3.69)4 (2.17)5 (8.33) 
Giardia   0.64b
  0 Times218 (89.34)164 (89.13)54 (90.00) 
  1 Time24 (9.84)19 (10.33)5 (8.33) 
  2+ Times2 (0.82)1 (0.54)1 (1.67) 
Strongyloides   0.30b
  0 Times241 (98.77)183 (99.46)58 (96.67) 
  1 Time3 (1.23)1 (0.54)2 (3.33) 
Entamoeba   0.57b
  0 Times235 (96.31)176 (95.65)59 (98.33) 
  1 Time9 (3.69)8 (4.35)1 (1.67) 
 Any Infection94 (38.52)63 (34.24)31 (51.67)0.02c
 Total Infections- mean ± SD0.57 ± 0.960.49 ± 0.950.82 ± 0.980.02a
  1. a = t-test; b = Fisher’s exact test; c = Chi-square test; dAdditional pregnancy after the birth of the enrolled child