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Table 1 Characteristics of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients for Derivation and Validation Datasets

From: Derivation and validation of a prognostic score for neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: a case-control study

 No. (%) 
Baseline CharacteristicsDerivation Set (n = 812)Validation Set (n = 246)p
Time, year20162017 
Mortality207 (26%)124 (50%)0.41
Maternal Age, year  0.72
  < 2054 (8%)19 (8%)
 21–29452 (65%)150 (66%)
  ≥ 30186 (27%)59 (26%)
Parity  0.30
 1409 (51%)132 (54%)
  ≥ 2400 (49%)111 (46%)
Admission Age, hour  0.05
  ≤ 1431 (53%)113 (46%)
  > 1381 (47%)133 (54%)
Sex  0.75
 Male488 (60%)145 (59%)
 Female325 (40%)101 (41%)
Gestational Age, weeks  0.25
  ≥ 37 weeks532 (66%)150 (61%)
 32–36 weeks193 (24%)56 (23%)
  < 32 weeks87 (11%)40 (16%)
Birthweight, grams  0.03
  ≥ 2500465 (57%)127 (52%)
 1500–2499263 (32%)77 (31%)
  < 150084 (10%)42 (17%)
Onset of Labor  0.09
 Spontaneous666 (94%)205 (91%)
 Induced40 (6%)20 (9%)
Duration of labor, mean (SD), hours11.8 (9.7)11.9 (10.8)0.84
Rupture of membranes, mean (SD), hours9.8 (31.2)19.2 (77.6)0.02
Delivery  0.03
 Vaginal572 (70%)191 (78%)
 C-Section240 (30%)55 (22%)
Antenatal Care764 (94%)234 (95%)0.68
Maternal HIV positive29 (4%)10 (4%)0.77
1st Minute APGAR, mean (SD)6.5 (1.5)5.9 (1.8)< 0.001
5th Minute APGAR, mean (SD)7.7 (1.5)7.2 (1.7)< 0.001
Suctioned at Delivery161 (20%)60 (24%)0.12
Bag & Mask at Delivery138 (17%)65 (26%)< 0.001
Intubated at Delivery22 (3%)3 (1%)0.18
CPAP used on Admission181 (22%)83 (34%)< 0.001
Admission Heart Rate  < 0.001
  < 10014 (2%)20 (8%)
 100–160714 (88%)202 (82%)
  > 16084 (10%)24 (10%)
Admission Respiratory Rate  0.24
  < 3028 (3%)25 (10%)
 30–60481 (59%)128 (52%)
  > 60303 (37%)93 (38%)
Admission Temperature, Celsius  0.38
  < 36.0525 (65%)157 (64%)
 36.0–36.490 (11%)25 (10%)
 36.5–37.5139 (17%)40 (16%)
  > 37.558 (7%)24 (10%)
Admission Respiratory Distress  0.0047
 None396 (49%)96 (39%)
 Mild64 (8%)20 (8%)
 Moderate233 (29%)82 (33%)
 Severe119 (15%)48 (20%)
Admission Level of Consciousness  < 0.001
 Alert677 (84%)167 (68%)
 Irritable21 (3%)4 (2%)
 Lethargic91 (11%)53 (22%)
 Comatose23 (3%)22 (9%)
Gestational Size  0.50
 Small for Gestational Age263 (32%)85 (35%)
 Appropriate for Gestational Age502 (62%)149 (61%)
 Large for Gestational Age45 (6%)12 (5%)
Head Size  0.84
 Microcephalic51 (7%)16 (7%)
 Normocephalic447 (61%)149 (63%)
 Macrocephalic229 (31%)72 (30%)
  1. APGAR = Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration, CPAP = Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  2. Comparison of sociodemographic and clinical variables between derivation and validation datasets. Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding, and numbers may not add to the total due to missing values