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Table 3 Gross and adjusted multilevel logistic regression analysis of factors associated with overweight in children of municipal public schools in Northern Brazil, 2018

From: Multilevel analysis of factors that influence overweight in children: research in schools enrolled in northern Brazil School Health Program

Variables Gross Analysis Adjusted Analysis
OR (95%CI) Model I
OR (95%CI)
Model II
OR (95%CI)
Model III
OR (95%CI)
Specific Individual Average Effects
Socio-demographic characteristics
  Gender
   Female 1    
   Male 0.89 (0.69–1.17)    
   Age 0.996 (0.88–1.12)    
  Grade
   Second 1    
   Fourth 1.08 (0.83–1.42)    
Physical aptitude
 Distance covered in 6 min/height (m) 0.996 (0.99–1.00)*    
 Non-sedentary activities classification
  < 2 activities 1    
  > 2 activities 0.83 (0.63–1.10)    
Sedentary activities classification
  < 2 activities 1   1 1
  > 2 activities 1.49 (1.13–1.98)*   1.48 (0.22–0.43)* 1.46 (1.09–1.95)*
Food Consumption Adequacy
 Meals
  Insufficient (< 5 meals) 1   1 1
  Adequate (> 5 meals) 0.88 (0.67–1.16)   0.78 (0.57–1.05) 0.80 (0.59–1.08)
 Cereals group
  Insufficient (< 6 portions) 1    
  Adequate (> 6 portions) 0.73 (0.38–1.41)    
 Vegetables group
  Insufficient (< 3 portions) 1    
  Adequate (> 3 portions) 1.04 (0.55–1.97)    
 Fruits group
  Insufficient (< 3 portions) 1    
  Adequate (> 3 portions) 1.21 (0.80–1.81)    
 Meats and eggs group
  Insufficient (< 1 portion) 1    
  Adequate (1–2 portions) 1.43 (0.94–2.16)    
  Excessive (> 2 portions) 1.30 (0.79–2.15)    
 Dairy group     
 Insufficient (< 3 portions) 1   
 Adequate (3 portions) 1.18 (0.67–2.09)    
 Legume group
  Insufficient (< 1 portion) 1    
  Adequate (1–2 portions) 0.90 (0.65–1.23)    
  Excessive (> 2 portions) 0.66 (0.33–1.32)    
Fat group
 Adequate (< 1 portion) 1    
 Excessive (> 1 portions) 1.24 (0.91–1.69)    
 Sugar group
 Adequate (< 1 portion) 1   1 1
 Excessive (> 1 portions) 1.35 (1.02–1.78)*   1.36 (1.00–1.84)* 1.26 (0.93–1.70)
Specific Contextual Average Effects
School’s characteristics
  Administrative region
   North 1    1
   Center-South 0.72 (0.52–1.02)    0.82 (0.51–1.31)
   South 0.47 (0.34–0.66)*    0.52 (0.33–0.83)*
   School shift
   Part-time 1    
   Full-time 0.64 (0.49–0.84)*    
Physical activity practice at school
 Dance
  No 1    1
  Yes 0.63 (0.48–0.83)*    0.63 (0.43–0.92)*
 Body practices
  No 1    
  Yes 0.69 (0.52–0.90)*    
 Weekly physical activity classes
   < 3 weekly classes 1    
   > 3 weekly classes 0.64 (0.49–0.84)*    
School feeding
 Number of offered meals
  1 meal 1    
  3 meals 0.62 (0.47–0.81)*    
 The school has a garden
  No 1    
  Yes 0.73 (0.56–0.96)*    
Foods Sale in School Surroundings
 Food sale in school surroundings
  No 1    
  Yes 1.45 (0.97–2.17)    
 Fried snacks sale
  No 1    
  Yes 1.38 (1.05–1.81)*    
 Candy sale
  No 1    1
  Yes 1.58 (1.11–2.27)*    1.67 (1.01–2.75)*
 Sweetened beverage sale
  No 1    
  Yes 0.77 (0.59–1.01)    
SHP actions performed at school
 Healthy eating promotion activities
  No 1    
  Yes 1.72 (0.79–3.75)    
 Nutritional state assessment in the school
  No 1    
  Yes 0.66 (0.45–0.96)*    
 Childhood obesity prevention activities
  No 1    
  Yes 0.42 (0.16–1.01)    
 Nutritional state assessment in the PHC
  No 1    
  Yes 1.46 (1.10–1.95)*    
General Contextual Effects - Measuring the variation between the nutritional status classification
σ2 (SE)   0.411 0.386 (0.110) 0.102 (0.161)
PCV   (0.114) 2.36% 23.68%
ICC    4.32% 0.03%
MOR   4.88% 1.44 1.10
AUC   1.48 0.652 (0.615–0.690) 0.637 (0.599–0.675)
AUC change*   1.0 (1.0–1.0) −0.348 −0.015
Model evaluation
Log likelihood   − 606.44045 −600.10343 − 589.59713
LR Test    0.0054 0.0003
AIC   1216.881 1210.207 1197.194
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, PHC Primare Health Care, σ2 Contextual level variance, SE Standard Error, PCV Proportional Change of Variance, ICC Interclass Correlation Coefficient, MOR Odds Ratio median, AUC Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, LR test Likelihood ratio test, AIC Akaike Information Criterion. * Change in relation to the previous model