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Table 1 Characteristics of children and municipal public schools in Northern Brazil, according to the BMI classification by age, 2018. N = 1036

From: Multilevel analysis of factors that influence overweight in children: research in schools enrolled in northern Brazil School Health Program

Variablesa BMI Classification by Age Total p Value
Thinness and Eutrophy Overweight and Obesity
Gender
 Female 405 (54.1%) 164 (56.9%) 569 (54.9%) 0.417b
 Male 343 (45.9%) 124 (43.1%) 467 (45.1)  
Age 8.0 (8.5–8.7) 8.6 (8.5–8.7) 8.0 (8.5–8.7) 0.943c
Grade
 Second 389 (52%) 144 (50%) 533 (51.4%) 0.563b
 Fourth 359 (48%) 144 (50%) 503 (48.6%)  
Anthropometric Variables
 Waist Circumference 55.0 (55.0–55.6) 66.0 (66.7–68.7) 57.0 (58.3–59.3) < 0,001d
 Waist-to-height ratio 0.42 (0.41–0.42) 0.48 (0.49–0.50) 0.43 (0.43–0.44) < 0,001d
Classification of Waist-to-heigh ratio
 Absence of cardiovascular risk 732 (99,9%) 174 (61,5%) 906 (89,2%) < 0,001b
 Presence of cardiovascular risk 1 (0,1%) 109 (38,5%) 110 (10,8%)  
Physical Activity
 Covered distance divided by height 343.8 (342.6–350.1) 332.5 (329.1–341.4) 340.8 (340.1–346.5) 0.003c
 Number of non-sedentary activities 2.0 (2.2–2.5) 2.0 (2.1–2.6) 2.0 (2.2–2.5) 0.951c
Non-sedentary activities classification
  < Median (< 2 activities) 264 (35.3%) 114 (39.6%) 378 (36.5%) 0.199b
  > Median (> 2 activities) 484 (64.7%) 174 (60.4%) 658 (63.5%)  
Non-sedentary activities intensity 6.0 (6.2–7.0) 5.0 (5.7–7.0) 5.0 (6.2–6.9) 0.447c
Non-sedentary activities intensity classification
  < Median (< 5 activities) 322 (43%) 137 (47.6%) 459 (44.3%) 0.189b
  > Median (> 5 activities) 426 (57%) 151 (52.4%) 577 (55.7%)  
 Number of sedentary activities/day 2.0 (2.1–2.4) 2.0 (2.5–3.0) 2.0 (2.3–2.6) 0.005c
Sedentary activities classification
  < Median (< 2 activities) 331 (44.3%) 100 (34.7%) 431 (41.6%) 0.005b
  > Median (> 2 activities) 417 (55.7%) 188 (65.3%) 605 (58.4%)  
Food Consumption
 Number of meals 5.0 (4.7–4.8) 5.0 (4.6–4.9) 5.0 (4.7–4.8) 0.909c
 Meals adequacy
  Insufficient (< 5 meals) 276 (36.9%) 115 (39.9%) 391 (37.7%)  
  Adequate (> 5 meals) 472 (63.1%) 173 (60.1%) 645 (62.3%)  
Cereals group portions 3.0 (2.8–3.1) 3.0 (2.7–3.1) 3.0 (2.8–3.0) 0.605c
 Cereals group adequacy
  Insufficient (< 6 portions) 706 (94.4%) 276 (95.8%) 982 (94.8%) 0.347b
 Adequate (> 6 portions) 42 (5.6%) 12 (4.2%) 54 (5.2%)  
 Vegetables group portions 0.0 (0.6–0.8) 0.0 (0.6–0.8) 0.0 (0.6–0.8) 0.923c
 Vegetables group adequacy
  Insufficient (< 3 portions) 713 (95.3%) 274 (95.1%) 987 (95.3%) 0.902b
  Adequate (> 3 portions) 35 (4.7%) 14 (4.9%) 49 (4.7%)  
 Fruits group portions 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (1.0–1.3) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.087c
Fruits group adequacy
 Insufficient (< 3 portions) 662 (88.5%) 249 (86.5%) 911 (87.9%) 0.365b
 Adequate (> 3 portions) 86 (11.5%) 39 (13.5%) 125 (12.1%)  
 Dairy group portions 0.0 (0.7–0.8) 0.0 (0.6–0.8) 0.0 (0.7–0.8) 0.866c
Dairy group adequacy
 Insufficient (< 3 portions) 708 (94.7%) 270 (93.8%) 978 (94.4%) 0.571b
 Adequate (3 portions) 40 (5.3%) 18 (6.3%) 58 (5.6%)  
Meat and eggs group portions 2.0 (1.5–1.7) 2.0 (1.5–1.8) 2.0 (1.5–1.7) 0.666c
Meat and eggs group adequacy
 Insufficient (< 1 portions) 118 (15.8%) 34 (11.8%) 152 (14.7%) 0.233b
 Adequate (1–2 portions) 498 (66.7%) 205 (71.2%) 703 (67.9%)  
 Excessive (> 2 portions) 131 (17.5%) 49 (17%) 180 (17.4%)  
 Legume group portions 1.0 (1.2–1.3) 1.0 (1.0–1.2) 1.0 (1.2–1.3) 0.065c
Legume group adequacy
 Insufficient (< 1 portions) 179 (23.9%) 76 (26.4%) 255 (24.6%) 0.469b
 Adequate (1–2 portions) 526 (70.3%) 200 (69.4%) 726 (70.1%)  
 Excessive (> 2 portions) 43 (5.7%) 12 (4.2%) 55 (5.3%)
Fat group portions 1.0 (1.5–1.7) 1.0 (1.5–1.8) 1.0 (1.5–1.7) 0.538c
Fat group adequacy
 Adequate (< 0 portions) 216 (28.9%) 71 (24.7%) 287 (27.7%) 0.173b
 Excessive (> 1 portions) 532 (71.1%) 217 (75.3%) 749 (72.3%)  
 Sugar group portions 1.0 (1.1–1.3) (1.0–1.3 – 1.7) 1.0 (1.2–1.4) 0.019c
Sugar group adequacy
Adequate (< 0 portions) 477 (63.8%) 163 (56.6%) 640 (61.8%) 0.033b
Excessive (> 1 portions) 271 (36.2%) 125 (43.4%) 396 (38.2%)  
  1. Note: BMI Body Mass Index; aNumbers with percentages or medians with 95% confidence interval; bChi-squared test; cStudent’s t-test; dMann-Whitney