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Table 3 Factors associated with pneumonia in East Africa

From: Prevalence of pneumonia and its associated factors among under-five children in East Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Odds ratio(95%CI) Author (reference) Year Pooled AOR(95%CI) I2(P-value)
Use of wood as fuel source 1.15(0.47,1.88) Negash et al [22] 2019 1.53(1.30, 1.77) 0.0% (0.465)
2.1 (0.58,6.98) Lema et al [24] 2019
7.41 (2.75,19.95) Fekadu et al [25] 2014
1.49 (0.32,6.36) Shibre et al [10] 2015
3.41(1.5,7.7) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
2.92 (0.78,10.84) Abuka et al [29] 2017
1.78(0.28,1.09) Onyango et al [39] 2012
1.42(0.28,0.92) Sikolia et al [43] 2002
Cook food in living room 2.12(0.76, 5.92) Lema et al [24] 2019 1.47(1.16–1.79) 0.0% (0.58)
1.5(1.42, 5.4) Dadi et al [26] 2014
2.1(1.2, 3.7) Geleta et al [27] 2016
3.27(1.4,7.9) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
2.16(1.17,3.99 Lenda et al [35] 2018
1.35(0.3,0.99) Sikolia et al [43] 2002
Caring of a child on mother during cooking 11.76(4.6,30.08) Lema et al [24] 2019 3.26(1.80–4.72) 22.5% (0.26)
5.38(2.13,9.65) Fekadu et al [25] 2014
1.7(1.317,7.362) Dadi et al [26] 2014
2.55(1.33,6.5) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
1.37(0.24,7.83) Abuka et al [29] 2017
7.37(2.55,21.32) Tadesse et al [33] 2015
6.2(3.25,11.83) Lenda et al [35] 2018
Being unvaccinated 2.6(0.8, 8.1) Negash et al [22] 2019 2.41(2.00–2.81) 51.4% (0.055)
1.6(0.9,2.9) Geleta et al [27] 2016
4.62(2.64,11) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
1.68(0.16,2.42) Abuka et al [29] 2017
2.77(0.19,0.54) Workineh et al [30] 2017
2.67(0.15,0.92) MANYA et al [37] 2005
1.68(0.16,2.42) Onyango et al [39] 2012
Non-exclusive breast feeding 1.51(0.88,2.58) Negash et al [22] 2019 2.47(1.79, 3.16) 65.0% (0.01)
6(3.33,10.8) Abaye et al [23] 2019
2.49(0.05,3.7) Lema et al [24] 2019
2(1.58, 7.98) Dadi et al [26] 2014
3.3(2,5.4) Geleta et al [27] 2016
2.37(0.16,1.08) Shibre et al [10] 2015
3.3(1.27,8.3) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
4.2(1.07,16.6) Abuka et al [29] 2017
1.64(0.36,0.93) Workineh et al [30] 2017
6.10(2.5,14.93) Markos et al [31] 2019
8.33(2.6.3,10.50) Gedefaw et al [32] 2015
Child history of Acute Respiratory Tract infection (ARTI) 1.56(0.79,3.06) Negash AA et al [22] 2019 2.62 (1.68, 3.56) 11.7% (0.337)
1.36(0.26,7.21) Abaye et al [23] 2019
4.26(1.56,11.59) Lema et al [24] 2019
3.04(1.2,7.77) Dadi et al [26] 2014
5.2(3.1,8.9) Geleta et al [27] 2016
4.03(2, 8) Tegenu et al [28] 2018
2.75(1.3,5.81) Lenda et al [35] 2018
2.71(1.12,6.52) Onyango et al [39] 2012
17.13(5.01,60.26) Muthumbi et al [40] 2017