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Table 8 Dietary intake outcomes in GRIT program completers (n = 23)

From: Multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention in children and adolescents - results of the project GRIT (Growth, Resilience, Insights, Thrive) pilot study

MeasureBaseline12-weeks 
 Mean ± SD or Median (IQR)ap-value
Food Percentage Contribution to Daily Energy Intake
 Core55.7 ± 17.061.7 ± 12.40.02*
 Non-core44.3 ± 17.038.4 ± 12.40.02*
 Vegetables4.0 (2.0–5.0)4.5 (2.0–7.0)0.38
 Fruit7.8 ± 4.310.1 ± 7.40.12
 Grains15.0 (8.0–19.0)15.5 (10.3–18.8)0.86
 Meat12.6 ± 6.014.7 ± 7.80.21
 Meat alternatives2.0 (1.0–5.0)2.0 (1.0–4.8)0.64
 Dairy9.0 (8.0–17.0)11.5 (7.0–22.0)0.41
 Sweet drinks3.0 (1.0–5.0)2.0 (1.0–4.8)0.89
 Packaged snacks6.0 (3.0–10.0)4.5 (3.0–9.8)0.73
 Confectionary6.0 (4.0–12.0)5.0 (4.0–8.8)0.003*
 Baked products6.0 (4.0–9.0)5.0 (3.0–7.0)0.02*
 Takeaway9.0 (8.0–16.0)10.0 (9.0–16.8)0.78
 Condiments2.0 (1.0–3.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)0.12
 Fatty meats2.0 (1.0–3.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)0.23
Australian Recommended Food Scores
 Total (/73)23.0 (18.0–35.0)26.0 (19.3–39.5)0.28
 Vegetables (/21)7.3 ± 5.06.8 ± 4.91.00
 Fruit (/12)4.0 (3.0–7.0)5.0 (2.3–7.8)0.25
 Grains (/13)4.6 ± 2.14.8 ± 2.50.13
 Meat (/7)2.3 ± 1.12.4 ± 1.60.73
 Meat alternatives (/6)1.0 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (1.0–2.0)0.79
 Dairy (/11)3.7 ± 2.24.0 ± 2.40.12
 Extras (/1)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.00
 Water (/2)1.0 (0.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)0.66
Daily Nutrient Intake
 Energy (kJ)9078 ± 26898663 ± 35070.52
 Protein (g)94.4 ± 28.896.7 ± 42.90.75
 Protein (%E)17.0 (16.0–19.0)18.0 (17.0–21.8)0.39
 CHO (g)252.3 ± 79.9230.1 ± 93.40.23
 CHO (%E)47.7 ± 5.745.9 ± 8.60.31
 Fat (g)83.5 ± 28.580.9 ± 36.50.71
 Fat (%E)35.4 ± 4.835.3 ± 6.10.86
 Saturated fat (g)38.1 ± 14.735.9 ± 17.70.53
 Saturated fat (%E)15.9 ± 3.015.3 ± 3.40.52
 PUFA (g)8.9 ± 2.98.6 ± 4.10.93
 PUFA (%E)4.0 (3.0–4.0)4.0 (3.3–4.0)0.59
 MUFA (g)29.4 ± 9.927.4 ± 13.80.89
 MUFA (%E)12.4 ± 2.012.8 ± 2.50.52
 Cholesterol (mg)326.4 ± 114.4303.0 ± 172.90.81
 Sugars (g)131.1 ± 55.8105.4 ± 48.10.18
 Water (L)2.2 ± 0.72.1 ± 1.00.63
 Fibre (g)22.1 (22.2–29.9)23.7 (15.3–30.6)0.99
 Vitamin C (mg)86.2 (53.0–264.8)110.2 (57.1–150.5)0.40
 Folate (μg)235.0 (235.0–359.7)256.9 (173.7–353.3)0.86
 Niacin (mg)21.2 ± 6.721.2 ± 9.20.99
 Niacin equivalents (mg)40.1 ± 11.840.6 ± 17.50.86
 Riboflavin (mg)2.2 ± 0.92.2 ± 1.10.87
 Thiamin (mg)1.6 (0.8–1.8)1.5 (0.9–2.1)0.52
 Vitamin A (μg)1145.7 (802.5–1614.7)1261.9 (771.1–1753.0)0.71
 Retinol (μg)497.3 (306.5–632.8)429.3 (429.3–700.0)0.58
 Beta-carotene (μg)3694.0 (1974.7–5720.7)4092.9 (1487.9–6383.2)1.00
 Sodium (mg)2197.8 ± 702.12141.3 ± 999.00.76
 Potassium (mg)3093.0 ± 997.43104.2 ± 1306.40.96
 Magnesium (mg)332.4 ± 88.1339.2 ± 130.40.75
 Phosphorus (mg)1578.1 ± 513.31589.6 ± 723.50.93
 Iron (mg)12.1 ± 3.712.1 ± 4.70.97
 Zinc (mg)12.3 ± 3.612.7 ± 5.50.62
 Calcium (mg)987.6 (713.7–1318.6)906.5 (601.1–1695.9)0.61
  1. CHO carbohydrate, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids
  2. aNon-parametric data
  3. *Significant difference between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.05