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Table 2 Healthcare Access and Adverse Family Impact among U.S. Children ages 0–5 years, by Prematurity Status

From: Healthcare access and adverse family impact among U.S. children ages 0–5 years by prematurity status

  Very Low Birthweight Low Birthweight and/or Preterm Other Children
Healthcare Access
 Adequate Health Insurance 79.0% 73.6% 72.3%
 RR (95% CI) 1.09 (0.98–1.22) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 1.00
p-value 0.32 0.69
 Medical Home 42.2% 42.6% 51.8%
 RR (95% CI) 0.81 (0.59–1.12) 0.82 (0.72–0.94) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 1.00
p-value 0.38 0.14
 Developmental Screening 51.9% 37.7% 32.9%
 RR (95% CI) 1.58 (1.03–2.42) 1.15 (0.91–1.44) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 1.49 (0.96–2.32) 1.18 (0.96–1.44) 1.00
p-value 0.08 0.11
Adverse Family Impact
  ≥ $1000 Out-of-Pocket Expenses 13.5% 13.2% 12.3%
 RR (95% CI) 1.10 (0.67–1.81) 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 1.06 (0.69–1.64) 1.20 (0.94–1.54) 1.00
p-value 0.78 0.15
 Parent Cut-back or Stopped Work 30.3% 8.6% 5.1%
 RR (95% CI) 5.95 (3.59–9.86) 1.68 (1.19–2.38) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 2.91 (1.86–4.56) 1.41 (0.98–2.02) 1.00
p-value <.001 0.06
 Parental Aggravation 9.3% 4.3% 3.1%
 RR (95% CI) 3.02 (1.59–5.71) 1.39 (0.93–2.10) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 1.41 (0.83–2.39) 1.14 (0.76–1.71) 1.00
p-value 0.20 0.54
 Maternal Health Not Excellent 73.7% 76.8% 73.5%
 RR (95% CI) 1.00 (0.86–1.18) 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 0.98 (0.83–1.15) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 1.00
p-value 0.80 0.32
 Paternal Health Not Excellent 81.5% 72.4% 71.0%
 RR (95% CI) 1.15 (1.02–1.29) 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 1.00
 aRR (95% CI) 1.12 (0.99–1.28) 1.01 (0.94–1.09) 1.00
p-value 0.08 0.71
  1. Note. Each multivariable model included the following covariates in addition to prematurity status: child race and ethnicity, household language, household income, insurance coverage, children with special health care needs status, and one or more chronic condition(s). P-values are provided for the multivariable models that estimated adjusted relative risk ratios. For these models, the Bonferroni-adjusted significance threshold = 0.006
  2. Data source: 2016 & 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health
  3. Abbreviations: aRR adjusted relative risk, CI confidence interval, RR relative risk, U.S. United States