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Table 1 Characteristics of U.S. Children ages 0–5 years, by Prematurity Status (n = 19,482)

From: Healthcare access and adverse family impact among U.S. children ages 0–5 years by prematurity status

  Very Low Birthweight (n = 242) Low Birthweight and/or Preterm (n = 2205) Other Children (n = 17,035) p-value
Estimated Number (%) 302,945 (1.4%) 293,8274 (13.3%) 18,818,572 (85.3%)
Age, years     0.58
M (SD) 2.3 (1.5) 2.5 (1.4) 2.5 (1.6)  
Sex     0.66
 Male (n = 10,050) 49.2% 48.7% 51.2%  
 Female (n = 9432) 50.8% 51.3% 48.8%  
Race & Ethnicity     < 0.001
 White, non-Hispanic (n = 13,772) 39.2% 41.8% 55.9%  
 Hispanic (n = 2086) 21.7% 31.3% 21.4%  
 Black, non-Hispanic (n = 968) 17.8% 13.6% 10.6%  
 Other race, non-Hispanic (n = 2656) 21.3% 13.2% 12.2%  
Nativity     0.17
 Parent born in the U.S. (n = 15,362) 64.1% 70.7% 75.7%  
 Parent not born in the U.S. (n = 3252) 35.9% 29.3% 24.3%  
Primary Household Language     0.09
 English (n = 18,037) 79.1% 80.1% 87.1%  
 Spanish or other language (n = 1343) 20.9% 19.9% 12.9%  
Highest Parent Education Level     0.16
 High school or less (n = 2154) 29.1% 27.5% 22.3%  
 More than high school (n = 17,230) 70.9% 72.5% 77.7%  
Family Structure     0.32
 Two parents married (n = 15,306) 59.7% 65.2% 70.8%  
 Two parents unmarried (n = 1494) 19.7% 11.4% 10.5%  
 Single mother (n = 1723) 9.6% 14.1% 12.2%  
 Other family structure (n = 815) 11.1% 9.3% 6.5%  
Household Income Levela     0.021
 0–99% FPL (n = 1930) 24.2% 25.1% 18.7%  
 100–199% FPL (n = 2584) 18.4% 22.6% 21.1%  
 200–399% FPL (n = 6301) 29.1% 25.9% 28.5%  
  ≥ 400% FPL (n = 8257) 28.3% 26.4% 31.6%  
Health Insurance Coverage     0.019
 Private health insurance only (n = 14,177) 41.2% 52.8% 59.1%  
 Private and public health insurance (n = 703) 8.9% 4.2% 4.1%  
 Public health insurance only (n = 3831) 47.6% 38.0% 31.1%  
 Uninsured or unspecified insurance type (n = 679) 2.4% 5.0% 5.7%  
Region     0.21
 Northeast (n = 3376) 20.4% 16.1% 16.4%  
 Midwest (n = 5136) 17.3% 18.1% 22.0%  
 South (n = 5919) 44.6% 39.4% 36.5%  
 West (n = 5051) 17.7% 26.3% 25.0%  
Children with Special Health Care Needs Status     < 0.001
 No (n = 17,210) 62.8% 85.6% 90.9%  
 Yes (n = 2272) 37.2% 14.4% 9.2%  
≥1 Current Chronic Health Condition(s)     < 0.001
 No (n = 13,864) 58.0% 70.3% 76.5%  
 Yes (n = 4739) 42.0% 29.7% 23.5%  
Adverse Childhood Experience(s)b     0.16
 None (n = 13,402) 47.1% 63.9% 65.9%  
 1 Adverse childhood experience (n = 3706) 43.5% 23.6% 23.1%  
  ≥ 2 Adverse childhood experiences (n = 1683) 9.3% 12.4% 11.0%  
Family Resiliencec     0.67
 Some/none of the time 0–1 items (n = 1022) 12.9% 6.5% 6.5%  
 Most of the time 2–3 items (n = 1791) 10.1% 11.1% 8.8%  
 All of the time to all 4 items (n = 16,669) 77.0% 82.5% 84.7%  
  1. Data source: 2016 & 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health
  2. Abbreviations: FPL federal poverty level, U.S. United States
  3. aWeighted percentages were estimated from multiple imputation
  4. bThe following 9 adverse childhood experiences were assessed in the 2016 and 2017 NSCH: hard to get by on family’s income, parent or guardian divorced or separated, parent or guardian died, parent or guardian served time in jail, witnessed domestic violence, lived with anyone who was mentally ill, suicidal or severely depressed, lived with anyone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs, and treated or judged unfairly because of his/her race or ethnic group
  5. cThe following 4 indicators of family resilience were assessed in the 2016 and 2017 NSCH: talk together about what to do when the family faces a problem, work together to solve the problem when the family faces problems, know we have strengths to draw on when the family faces problems, and stay hopeful even in difficult times when the family faces problems