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Table 5 Crude and adjusted OR between Individual and Contextual factors and Cluster Membership (n = 3166)

From: Clustering of health-related behaviours and its relationship with individual and contextual factors in Portuguese adolescents: results from a cross-sectional study

Variables (reference class)   Cluster Membership (reference cluster: Healthy)
  OR (CI 95%) Active Screen users Substance users Inactive low fruit and vegetable eaters
Age Crude OR 1,16 (1,10-1,22) p< 0,001 1,87 (1,72-2,03) p< 0,001 1,12 (1,07-1,19) p< 0,001
a1 1,17 (1,11-1,24) p = 0,002 1,89 (1,74-2,05) p< 0,001 1,13 (1,07-1,19) p< 0,001
b 1,10 (1,04-1,17) p < 0,001 1,92 (1,74-2,12) p< 0,001 1,09 (1,03-1,16) p= 0,006
Male gender (female) Crude OR 2,22 (1,09-1,69) p= 0,003 1,69 (1,50-2,12) p< 0,001 1,24 (0,67-1,97) p= 0,002
a2 2,27 (1,89-2,72) p= 0,004 1,86 (1,47-2,35) p< 0,001 1,26 (1,05-1,52) p = 0,013
b 2,15 (1,73-2,65) p< 0,001 1,24 (0,94-1,64) p = 0,131 1,39 (1,12-1,72) p= 0,002
Overweight/ obesity
(normal weight)
Crude OR 1,16 (0,94-1,43) p = 0,171 0,94 (0,72-1,23) p = 0,662 1,17 (0,94-1,44) p = 0,152
Medium-to-low FAS (High) Crude OR 1,06 (0,87-1,26) p = 0,534 0,97 (0,77-1,21) p = 0,761 1,70 (1,40-2,04) p< 0,001
a 1,09 (0,91-1,30) p = 0,372 0,97 (0,77-1,23) p = 0,802 1,71 (1,42-2,06) p< 0,001
b 0,98 (0,81-1,23) p = 0,841 0,89 (0,68-1,16) p = 0,382 1,54 (1,26-1,88) p< 0,001
Other family typology (living with both parents) Crude OR 1,27 (1,02-1,59) p= 0,032 1,80 (1,38-2,33) p< 0,001 1,29 (1,03-1,61) p= 0,027
a 1,27 (1,01-1,58) p= 0,041 1,81 (1,38-2,39) p< 0,001 1,29 (1,03-1,62) p= 0,027
b 1,20 (0,93-1,53) p = 0,149 1,54 (1,12-2,10) p= 0,007 1,21 (0,95-1,55) p = 0,127
Poor or mixed family communication (good) Crude OR 1,33 (1,10-1,59) p= 0,003 2,00 (1,56-2,52) p< 0,001 1,40 (1,16-1,68) p< 0,001
a 1,48 (1,22-1,79) p< 0,001 1,78 (1,39-2,27) p< 0,001 1,40 (1,16-1,70) p= 0,001
b 1,36 (1,11-1,67) p= 0,003 1,45 (1,11-1,90) p= 0,007 1,26 (1,03-1,54) p= 0,028
Dislike school (like) Crude OR 2,56 (2,01-3,25) p< 0,001 4,25 (3,24-5,59) p< 0,001 1,60 (1,25-2,07) p< 0,001
a 2,30 (1,81-2,94) p< 0,001 3,70 (2,79-4,91) p< 0,001 1,53 (1,18-1,97) p= 0,001
b 1,88 (1,45-2,45) p< 0,001 2,40(1,75-3,29) p< 0,001 1,22 (0,92-1,61) p = 0,172
Average or below Academic Achievement (good) Crude OR 1,65 (1,38-1,97) p< 0,001 2,36 (1,88-2,96) p< 0,001 1,85 (1,55-2,21) p< 0,001
a 1,57 (1,31-1,88) p< 0,001 1,94 (1,53-2,46) p< 0,001 1,78 (1,48-2,14) p< 0,001
b 1,37 (1,13-1,88) p= 0,001 1,56 (1,19-2,03) p= 0,001 1,62 (1,33-1,97) p< 0,001
Evenings with friends Crude OR 1,39 (1,22-1,46) p< 0,001 1,73 (1,58-1,90) p< 0,001 0,97 (0,88-1,08) p = 0,581
a 1,24 (1,13-1,34) p< 0,001 1,63 (1,48-1,79) p< 0,001 0,93 (0,84-1,03) p = 0,165
b 1,17 (1,06-1,28) p< 0,001 1,50 (1,35-1,67) p< 0,001 0,92 (0,82-1,02) p = 0,118
Been bullied (no) Crude OR 1,44 (1,20-1,73) p< 0,001 1,42 (1,13-1,80) p= 0,003 1,18 (0,98-1,42) p = 0,084
a 1,36 (1,13-1,64) p< 0,001 1,58 (1,25-2,03) p< 0,001 1,18 (0,98-1,43) p = 0,083
b     
Bullied others (no) Crude OR 1,95 (1,60-2,38) p< 0,001 2,88 (2,27-3,65) p< 0,001 1,29 (1,05-1,59) p= 0,015
a 1,81 (1,48-2,22) p< 0,001 3,35 (2,59-4,32) p< 0,001 1,29 (1,05-1,59) p= 0,017
b 1,62 (1,29-2,03) p< 0,001 2,27 (1,70-3,03) p< 0,001 1,29 (1,03-1,64) p = 0,058
Participation in fights (no) Crude OR 1,61 (1,30-1,98) p< 0,001 3,16 (2,48-4,04) p< 0,001 0,98 (0,78-1,23) p = 0,856
a 1,34 (1,08-1,68) p< 0,001 3,84 (2,93-5,04) p< 0,001 0,98 (0,94-1,19) p = 0,592
b 0,99 (0,76-1,26) p = 0,906 2,43 (1,79-3,30) p< 0,001 0,85 (0,65-1,10) p = 0,218
  1. (a) adjusted for individual factors (age and sex); (a1) adjusted for gender, (a2) adjusted for age
  2. (b) adjusted for individual + contextual factors (FAS, family structure and family communication, school attachment, academic achievement, evenings with friends, bullied others, participation in fights)
  3. FAS Family Affluence Scale