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Table 1 Characteristics of antibiotic overuse indicators and number of sites sampled, 2012–2013

From: Assessing the appropriateness of paediatric antibiotic overuse in Australian children: a population-based sample survey

 No. of Sites 
ConditionIndicatorIDIndicator DescriptionAge Inclusion CriteriaGPPaed-iatricianEDInpatientStrength of Recommendationa
Acute GastroenteritisAGE22Children with gastroenteritis and no signs of infection were not prescribed antibiotics.0–15 years74NA3426Consensus-based recommendation
AsthmaASTH16Children aged > 2 years who presented with an acute exacerbation of asthma and who received antibiotics had another condition requiring antibiotic therapy.2–15 years4011910Consensus-based recommendation
BronchiolitisBRON25Infants (aged < 12 months) with mild to moderate bronchiolitis caused by a viral infection were not prescribed antibiotics.29 days - 11 months54NA3327Grade B
CroupCROU16Children diagnosed with croup were not treated with antibiotics.29 days - 15 years71NA3423Consensus-based recommendation
EczemaECZE07Children with atopic eczema and no signs of infection were not prescribed antibiotics.0–15 years72182310Grade B
FeverFEVE29Children aged ≥3 years with a fever (over 38 °C), no clinical focus and who were well were not prescribed antibiotics.3–15 years32#277Consensus-based recommendation
Otitis MediaOTIT05Children with AOM aged ≥12 months who were mildly unwell were not prescribed antibiotics.1–15 years753303Grade B
TonsillitisTONS02Children with a sore throat and with no other symptoms or signs of tonsillitis were not prescribed antibiotics.29 days - 15 years43#235Grade A
TONS04Children aged < 4 years with a sore throat and associated cough who did not require hospitalisation were not prescribed antibiotics.29 days - 3 years51#25NAConsensus-based recommendation
TONS07Children who had a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were not administered perioperative antibiotics.29 days - 15 yearsNANANA5Consensus-based recommendation
  1. Legend: ID identifier, GP general practitioner, ED emergency department, AOM acute otitis media
  2. aStrength of recommendation as reported in individual clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). CPGs used a variety of classification schemes for allocating Strength of Recommendation in Grades (with Grade A indicating the strongest recommendation in all classification schemes). If strength of recommendation, or Level of Evidence, were not specified in the CPG, the term “Consensus-based recommendation” was assigned
  3. # Specialist Paediatrician’s practices were sampled for visits for care of fever and tonsillitis, but only one and three records were found respectively, so this healthcare setting was removed prior to analysis