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Table 3 Effect of KMC on maternal PHQ-9 scores, mother-infant bonding, maternal sense of competence and home environment

From: Community initiated kangaroo mother care and early child development in low birth weight infants in India-a randomized controlled trial

OutcomeMean (SD)Univariate analysisMultivariate analysisP-value
Unadjusted ß (95% CI)Adjusted ß (95% CI)a 
At 6 wks of infant age (N = 544)
 Maternal PHQ-9 scores
  Control1 (0–3)RefRef 
  KMC1 (0–3)−0.08 (−0.56 to 0.39)−0.12 (− 0.61 to 0.37)0.642
 Mother-infant bonding
  Control86.44 (5.5)RefRef 
  KMC87.33 (5.2)0.89 (−0.02 to 1.79)0.82 (−0.08 to 1.72)0.075
 Maternal sense of competence
  Control34.30 (3.6)RefRef 
  KMC34.75 (3.5)0.45 (−0.15 to 1.04)0.43 (−0.18 to 1.03)0.169
At 6 months of infant age (N = 544)
 Maternal PHQ-9 scores    
  Control0 (0–0)RefRef 
  KMC0 (0–0)−0.01 (−0.24 to 0.22)−0.04 (− 0.26 to 0.19)0.759
At 12 months of infant age (N = 516)
 Maternal sense of competence
  Control37.13 (2.7)RefRef 
  KMC37.25 (2.7)0.12 (−0.36 to 0.59)0.14 (−0.34 to 0.62)0.571
 Home environment (PROCESS scores)
  Control125.02 (16.5)RefRef 
  KMC123.01 (16.6)−2.00 (−4.86 to 0.85)−1.20 (−3.79 to 1.39)0.363
  1. β reflects the difference in mean scores between the intervention and control groups of the trial
  2. aAdjusted for socio-demographic characteristics (wealth quintile, religion, caste and number of family members) ; maternal characteristics (maternal age, maternal education); paternal characteristics (father’s age, father’s education); birth related characteristics (birth order, parity); infant characteristics (sex, birth weight, gestational age) and hospitalization in the neonatal period