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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the primary trial population (N = 552)

From: Community initiated kangaroo mother care and early child development in low birth weight infants in India-a randomized controlled trial

VariablesciKMC group
(N = 276)
Control group
(N = 276)
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
Wealth Quintiles
  1 (Least poor)53 (19.2)57 (20.6)
  250 (18.1)62 (22.5)
  359 (21.4)51 (18.5)
  455 (19.9)55 (19.9)
  5 (Poorest)59 (21.4)51 (18.5)
Religion
  Hindu227 (82.2)223 (80.8)
  Muslim48 (17.4)50 (18.1)
  Othersa1 (0.4)3 (1.1)
Social classb
  General64 (23.2)73 (26.5)
  Other Backward Class (OBC)88 (31.9)93 (33.7)
  Scheduled Caste/Tribe (SC/ST)124 (44.9)110 (39.8)
Type of family
  Nuclear67 (24.3)73 (26.5)
  Joint209 (75.7)203 (73.5)
Mean number of family members (SD)8.22 (3.5)8.30 (4.1)
MATERNAL AND PATERNAL CHARACTERISTICS
Mother’s age (in years)
   < 2032 (11.6)26 (9.4)
  20–29218 (79.0)233 (84.4)
   ≥ 3026 (9.4)17 (6.2)
Mean maternal age (years; SD)23.14 (3.9)22.95 (3.6)
Mother’s education (years of schooling)  
  Illiterate (0)110 (39.9)96 (34.8)
  Primary (1–5)37 (13.4)40 (14.5)
  Secondary (6–12)116 (42.0)121 (43.8)
  Higher than secondary (≥13)13 (4.7)19 (6.9)
Median years of education (IQR)5 (0–9)6.5 (0–10)
Mother’s occupation  
  Employed outside home6 (2.2)4 (1.5)
  Home maker270 (97.8)272 (98.5)
Father’s age (in years)  
   < 205 (1.8)4 (1.5)
  20–29204 (73.9)212 (76.8)
   ≥ 3067 (24.3)60 (21.7)
Mean father’s age (years; SD)26.70 (5.1)26.16 (4.4)
Father’s education (years of schooling)
  Illiterate (0)38 (13.8)27 (9.7)
  Primary (1–5)50 (18.1)43 (15.6)
  Secondary (6–12)155 (56.2)163 (59.1)
  Higher than secondary (≥13)33 (11.9)43 (15.6)
Median years of education (IQR)8 (5–11)9 (5–12)
Father’s occupation
  Employed in a government/private firm106 (38.4)119 (43.1)
  Daily wage earner73 (26.5)53 (19.2)
  Self-employed (own business/farming)87 (31.5)90 (32.6)
  Unemployed10 (3.6)14 (5.1)
BIRTH RELATED CHARACTERISTICS
Place of delivery
  Home89 (32.2)71 (25.7)
  Government facility134 (48.6)149 (54.0)
  Private facility53 (19.2)56 (20.3)
Type of delivery
  Normal272 (98.5)274 (99.3)
  Caesarean section4 (1.5)2 (0.7)
Birth order  
  1107 (38.7)99 (35.9)
  2–3115 (41.7)129 (46.7)
   ≥ 454 (19.6)48 (17.4)
Median birth order (IQR)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)
Parity
  Primiparous107(38.8)99 (35.9)
  Multiparous169 (61.2)177 (64.1)
INFANT CHARACTERISTICS
Sex of the baby
  Male112 (40.6)117 (42.4)
  Female164 (59.4)159 (57.6)
Mean birth weight (grams; SD)2051.3 (164.6)2066.0 (169.4)
Mean gestational age (weeks; SD)35.6 (1.9)35.7 (2.0)
  1. aOthers: Christian/Sikh/Jain/Parsi/Zoroastrian/Buddhist/neo Buddhist; bGeneral- group that do not qualify for any of the positive discrimination schemes by Government of India (GOI), OBC- term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially and educationally disadvantaged, SC/ST- official designations given to groups of historically disadvantaged indigenous people in India; No statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between intervention and control group