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Table 4 Mean values and between-group differences for body composition (n = 76)

From: Effectiveness of a school-based intervention on knowledge, attitude and practice on healthy lifestyle and body composition in Malaysian adolescents

VariablePrePost IPost II
Mean (SD)Adjusted mean
(95% CI)a
Adjusted mean difference
(95% CI)b
Fp-valueAdjusted effect sizecAdjusted mean
(95% CI)a
Adjusted mean difference
(95% CI)b
Fp-valueAdjusted effect sizec
zBMI
 IG0.48 (1.45)0.21 (0.06, 0.37)− 0.20 (− 0.41, 0.02)3.440.0680.05 (S)0.23 (− 0.05, 0.51)−0.14 (− 0.53, 0.24)0.570.4530.01 (S)
 CG0.11 (1.86)0.41 (0.27, 0.54)    0.38 (0.13, 0.62)    
WC (cm)
 IG69.3 (9.7)70.9 (69.6, 72.2)−0.0 (−1.8, 1.7)0.000.9730.00 (N)71.6 (69.0, 74.2)−1.3 (−4.9, 2.3)0.530.4670.01 (S)
 CG67.3 (14.3)70.9 (69.8, 72.0)    72.9 (70.6, 75.2)    
BF%
 IG25.2 (6.8)23.3 (22.4, 24.2)−1.2 (−2.4, 0.1)3.390.0700.05 (S)23.3 (22.4, 24.3)−0.7.(− 2.0, 0.7)0.960.3300.01 (S)
 CG21.5 (6.3)24.4 (23.6, 25.2)    24.0 (23.2, 24.8)    
  1. aAdjusted mean using analysis of covariance after controlling for age, sex and pre-intervention variables
  2. bBonferroni adjustment for 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference
  3. cEffect sizes: 0.01 = small; 0.06 = moderate; 0.14 = large (Cohen, [34]); N = negligible, S = small