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Table 3 Admission characteristics (n = 1106) at two children’s hospitals in South Africa, 2015

From: Serious adverse drug reactions at two children’s hospitals in South Africa

 All admissions (n = 1106)Admissions with ADR(s) (any seriousness) (n = 120)Admissions without ADR(s) (n = 986)P-value
Hospital
 RCWMCH886 (80%)100 (83%)786 (80%)P = 0.349c
 RMMCH220 (20%)20 (17%)200 (20%)
Type of admission
 Acute admission998 (90%)113 (94%)885 (90%)P = 0.124c
 Elective admission108 (9.8%)7 (5.8%)101 (10%)
Admission ward
 Short-stay ward only514 (46%)28 (23%)486 (49%)P < 0.001c
 Medical wards, not ICUa459 (42%)60 (50%)399 (40%)
 Any time spent in ICU133 (12%)32 (27%)101 (10%)
Duration of stay observed (censored at study end) (n = 1105)b
 1 day72 (6.5%)2 (1.7%)70 (7.1%)P < 0.001c
 2 to 3 days541 (49%)27 (23%)514 (52%)
 4 to 6 days229 (21%)20 (17%)209 (21%)
  ≥ 7 days263 (24%)71 (59%)192 (19%)
 Median (days)383P < 0.0001e
 Interquartile range (days)2 to 64 to 132 to 5
 Range (days)1 to 341 to 341 to 34
 Total stay observed (patient-days)574411984546 
Type of exit (n = 1105)b
 Discharged / transferred out1038 (94%)100 (83%)938 (95%)P < 0.001d
 Died13 (1.2%)2 (1.7%)11 (1.1%)
 Censored (remained in-hospital by end of observation period)54 (4.9%)18 (15%)36 (3.7%)
Drug exposure over 30-day period before admission
 No drug history documented in folder226 (20%)12 (10%)214 (22%)P < 0.001c
 No drugs130 (12%)7 (5.8%)123 (12%)
 Had ≥1 drug(s)750 (68%)101 (84%)649 (66%)
 Median background drug count2 (n = 880)4 (n = 108)2 (n = 772)P < 0.0001e
 Interquartile range1 to 42 to 71 to 4
 Range0 to 470 to 420 to 47
Drug exposure during admission (n = 1105)b
 No drugs69 (6.2%)2 (1.7%)67 (6.8%)P = 0.028c
 Had ≥1 drug(s)1036 (94%)118 (98%)918 (93%)
 Median in-hospital drug count4 (n = 1105)11 (n = 120)4 (n = 985)P < 0.0001e
 Interquartile range3 to 97 to 192 to 7
 Range0 to 460 to 460 to 36
 Median daily drug count5 (n = 5744 patient-days)9 (n = 1198 patient-days)4 (n = 4546 patient-days)P < 0.0001e
 Interquartile range3 to 85 to 132 to 7
 Range0 to 290 to 290 to 23
Total drug exposure (before and during admission)
 No drugs49 (4.4%)0 (0%)49 (5.0%)P = 0.012c
 Had ≥1 drug(s)1057 (96%)120 (100%)937 (95%)
 Median total drug count6125P < 0.0001e
 Interquartile range3 to 108 to 213 to 9
 Range0 to 522 to 470 to 52
  1. aMay have moved from short-stay to medical ward; may have included a high-care stay during the admission
  2. bDuration of stay, drug exposure during admission, and type of exit missing for one admission (an admission without an ADR)
  3. cChi-square test
  4. dFisher’s exact test
  5. eWilcoxon rank-sum test
  6. ADR adverse drug reaction; ICU intensive care unit; RCWMCH Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital; RMMCH Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital