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Table 2 Patient characteristics (n = 1050) at first admission to two children’s hospitals, South Africa, 2015

From: Serious adverse drug reactions at two children’s hospitals in South Africa

 All patients (n = 1050)Patients with ADR(s) (any seriousness) (n = 119)Patients without ADR(s) (n = 931)P-value
Age
 Median (IQR) months11 (2 to 41)20 (5 to 68)10 (2 to 37)P = 0.0010e
Age categoriesa
 Preterm neonates32 (3.1%)b, c6 (5.0%)26 (2.8%)P = 0.002f
 Term neonates96 (9.1%)c2 (1.7%)94 (10%)
 Infants421 (40%)42 (35%)379 (41%)
 Toddlers139 (13%)13 (11%)126 (14%)
 Early childhood198 (19%)30 (25%)168 (18%)
 Middle childhood123 (12%)18 (15%)105 (11%)
 Early adolescence41 (3.9%)8 (6.7%)33 (3.5%)
Weight-for-age z-score mean (SD)
 Infants−1.3 (2.0) (n = 418)−2.4 (2.2) (n = 42)−1.2 (2.0) (n = 376)P = 0.0002g
 Toddlers−0.45 (1.5) (n = 137)−0.78 (1.2) (n = 13)−0.41 (1.5) (n = 124)P = 0.3870g
 Early childhood−0.54 (1.6) (n = 165)−0.54 (1.7) (n = 24)− 0.54 (1.5) (n = 141)P = 0.9969g
Sex
 Male590 (56%)69 (58%)521 (56%)P = 0.676h
 Female460 (44%)50 (42%)410 (44%)
HIV infection / exposure status
 HIV negative887 (84%)91 (76%)796 (86%)P = 0.003f
 HIV indeterminate134 (13%)19 (16%)115 (12%)
 HIV infected29 (2.8%)d9 (7.6%)20 (2.1%)
Number of admissions
 One1001 (95%)109 (92%)892 (96%)P = 0.134f
 Two43 (4.1%)9 (7.6%)34 (3.7%)
 Three5 (0.48%)1 (0.84%)4 (0.43%)
 Four1 (0.10%)0 (0%)1 (0.11%)
  1. aPreterm neonate, born before 37 completed weeks’ gestation; term neonate, from birth to 27 days; infancy, 28 days to 12 months; toddler, 13 months to 24 months; early childhood, 25 months to 5 years; middle childhood, 6 years to 11 years; early adolescence, 12 years to 18 years
  2. bPreterm neonates included 16/32 (50%) moderate to late preterm (32 to < 37 weeks’ gestation), 12/32 (38%) very preterm (28 to < 32 weeks’ gestation), and 4/32 (13%) extremely preterm (< 28 weeks’ gestation) neonates
  3. cAmong all neonates (n = 128): 93/128 (73%) normal or high birth weight (≥2500 g), 18/128 (14%) low birth weight (1500 to 2499 g), 11/128 (8.6%) very low birth weight (1000 to 1499 g), and 6/128 (4.7%) extremely low birth weight (≤999 g)
  4. dOf whom 5/29 (17%) not yet on ART, and 24/29 (83%) on ART before and during admission. ART regimens were: 15/24 (63%) on abacavir (ABC) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), 3/24 (13%) on ABC + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), 2/24 (8.3%) on zidovudine (AZT) + 3TC + LPV/r, 1/24 (4.2%) on stavudine (D4T) + 3TC + LPV/r, 1/24 (4.2%) on AZT + 3TC + nevirapine (NVP), 1/24 (4.2%) on AZT + 3TC + EFV, and 1/24 (4.2%) on an unknown ART regimen
  5. eWilcoxon rank-sum test
  6. fFisher’s exact test
  7. gStudent’s t test
  8. hChi-square test
  9. ADR adverse drug reaction; IQR interquartile range; SD standard deviation