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Table 2 Association of bonding disorders with the prevalence of CL/P

From: Association of cleft lip and palate on mother-to-infant bonding: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

< 35, Primiparae,Healthy (n = 25,628)CL/P (n = 71)p value
Bonding disorders, n (%)3,528 (13.8)5 (7.0) 
Crude1.000.51 (0.21-1.26)0.146
Model 1a1.000.44 (0.18-1.09)0.076
Model 2b1.000.44 (0.18-1.12)0.085
< 35, MultiparaeHealthy (n = 31,693)CL/P (n = 85)p value
Bonding disorders, n (%)3,104 (9.8)9 (10.1) 
Crude1.001.11 (0.55-2.23)0.780
Model 1a1.001.03 (0.51-2.07)0.946
Model 2b1.001.03 (0.50-2.10)0.941
≥ 35, PrimiparaeHealthy (n = 6,536)CL/P (n = 18)p value
Bonding disorders, n (%)895 (13.7)3 (16.7) 
Crude1.001.26 (0.67-2.38)0.714
Model 1a1.001.14 (0.61-2.15)0.836
Model 2b1.001.24 (0.66-2.33)0.739
≥ 35, MultiparaeHealthy (n = 15,072)CL/P (n = 37)p value
Bonding disorders, n (%)1,503 (10.0)9 (24.3) 
Crude1.002.90 (1.58-5.34)0.006
Model 1a1.002.51 (1.17-5.37)0.018
Model 2b1.002.18 (0.96-4.95)0.062
  1. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (all such values) for bonding disorders were compered with the reference participants
  2. aAdjusted for maternal factors (smoking and drinking habits, feeding pattern, and infant sex)
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for maternal depression with Model 1
  4. P values representing significant differences (<0.05) are indicated in bold