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Table 2 Adjusted associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and child cognitive test scores in boys and girls at age 7, Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health, enrolled from 1998 to 2006

From: Prepregnancy obesity is associated with cognitive outcomes in boys in a low-income, multiethnic birth cohort

 Full ScalePerceptual ReasoningProcessing SpeedVerbal ComprehensionWorking Memory
 β (95% CI)p-valueβ (95% CI)p-valueβ (95% CI)p-valueβ (95% CI)p-valueβ (95% CI)p-value
BOYS (n = 165)
Model 1 Boys: Primary model with BMI
Prepregnancy BMI
 Underweight−5.6 (−14.8, 3.7)0.24−4.4 (− 14.8, 5.9)0.40−8.0 (− 19.6, 3.5)0.170.06 (− 8.2, 8.4)0.99− 3.5 (− 13.8, 6.7)0.50
 Normal weightReference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Overweight−7.4 (−12.5, −2.3)0.01−7.6 (−13.3, − 1.9)0.01−8.9 (− 15.3, − 2.5)0.01−3.3 (− 7.9, 1.3)0.15−3.5 (− 9.1, 2.2)0.23
 Obese−6.1 (− 11.0, − 1.2)0.02−5.5 (− 11.0, − 0.05)0.05− 4.6 (− 10.7, 1.5)0.14− 4.3 (− 8.7, 0.1)0.06−4.8 (− 10.2, 0.6)0.08
Model 2 Boys: Primary model with BMI, GWG Z-score, without HOME
Prepregnancy BMI
 Underweight− 5.9 (− 15.2, 3.4)0.21−4.7 (− 15.1, 5.8)0.38−8.3 (− 20.0, 3.3)0.16−0.3 (− 8.6, 8.1)0.95−3.9 (− 14.2, 6.4)0.46
 Normal weightReference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Overweight− 7.4 (− 12.5, − 2.3)0.005− 7.5 (− 13.3, − 1.8)0.01−8.9 (− 15.3, − 2.5)0.01−3.3 (− 7.9, 1.3)0.16− 3.4 (−9.1, 2.2)0.23
 Obese−6.5 (− 11.4, − 1.5)0.01−5.8 (−11.4, − 0.2)0.04−4.9 (− 11.2, 1.3)0.12− 4.6 (− 9.1, − 0.2)0.04− 5.1 (− 10.7, 0.4)0.07
GWG Z-score0.9 (−1.3, 3.0)0.430.6 (−1.8, 3.0)0.620.7 (− 2.0, 3.4)0.600.8 (−1.1, 2.8)0.390.8 (−1.6, 3.2)0.49
GIRLS (n = 203)
Model 3 Girls: Primary model with BMI
Prepregnancy BMI
 Underweight−1.4 (−9.3, 6,4)0.72−1.6 (− 10.4, 7.1)0.723.9 (−6.5, 14.2)0.46−6.0 (− 13.3, 1.3)0.111.4 (− 7.9, 10.8)0.76
 Normal weightReference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Overweight−1.2 (−5.1, 2.6)0.53−0.39 (−4.7, 3.9)0.86−2.4 (−7.4, 2.7)0.35− 0.20 (−3.8, 3.4)0.91−1.2 (− 5.7, 3.4)0.60
 Obese− 0.74 (− 5.0, 3.5)0.73− 0.56 (− 5.3, 4.2)0.82−0.62 (−6.3, 5.0)0.83− 0.84 (− 4.8, 3.1)0.680.24 (− 4.8, 5.3)0.93
Model 4 Girls: Primary model with BMI, GWG Z-score without HOME
Prepregnancy BMI
 Underweight−1.5 (−9.3, 6.3)0.70− 1.7 (− 10.4, 7.0)0.693.8 (−6.5, 14.2)0.47−6.0 (− 13.3, 1.3)0.101.4 (− 7.9, 10.6)0.77
 Normal weightReference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Overweight−1.5 (−5.3, 2.3)0.44−0.74 (− 5.0, 3.5)0.73−2.5 (−7.6, 2.6)0.33−0.35 (−3.9, 3.2)0.85−1.4 (− 5.9, 3.2)0.55
 Obese−0.6 (−4.9, 3.7)0.78−0.4 (− 5.1, 4.4)0.88−0.6 (−6.2, 5.1)0.85− 0.8 (− 4.7, 3.2)0.710.3 (− 4.7, 5.4)0.89
GWG Z-score− 1.3 (− 2.7, 0.2)0.09−1.6 (− 3.2, 0.008)0.05− 0.5 (− 2.4, 1.4)0.62−0.7 (− 2.0, 0.7)0.31−0.9 (− 2.6, 0.9)0.33
  1. Results shown are estimated β-coefficients for WISC-IV composite scores from multivariable linear regression models for each test, controlling for covariates. Normal weight prepregnancy BMI is the reference group. The adjustment set included maternal race/ethnicity, marital status, gestational age at delivery, maternal education, maternal IQ, child age and, for models 2 & 4, the postnatal HOME environment score. IPW, inverse probability weighting. Sample size for each maternal BMI category is as follows for 1) Boys: underweight (n = 9), normal weight (n = 83), overweight (n = 34), and obese (n = 39), and 2) Girls: underweight (n = 9), normal weight (n = 95), overweight (n = 55), and obese (n = 44)